Presentation on theme: "Name the Seven Dwarves Take out a piece of paper."— Presentation transcript:
Name the Seven Dwarves Take out a piece of paper
Difficulty of Task Was the exercise easy or difficult. It depends on what factors? Whether you like Disney movies how long ago you watched the movie how loud the people are around you when you are trying to remember
Memory The persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information. As you might have guessed, the next topic we are going to examine is……. So what was the point of the seven dwarves exercise?
Quiz Question Darren was asked to memorize a list of letters that included v, q, y, and j. He later recalled these letters as e, u, i, and k, suggesting that the original letters had been encoded A.Automatically B.Visually C.Semantically D.Acoustically
Recall v. Recognition With recall- you must retrieve the information from your memory (fill-in-the blank tests). With recognition- you must identify the target from possible targets (multiple-choice tests). Which is easier? Did you do better on the first or second dwarf memory exercise?
Sensory Memory The immediate, initial recording of sensory information in the memory system. Echoic – sensory memory for sound (last 1-2 s.) Iconic – sensory memory for vision (lasts a fraction of a second) Stored just for an instant, and most gets unprocessed.
Short-Term Memory Memory that holds a few items briefly. Seven digits (plus of minus two). The info will be stored into long-term or forgotten. How do you store things from short-term to long-term? Rehearsal You must repeat things over and over to put them into your long-term memory.
Long Term Memory Unlimited storehouse of information. Explicit (declarative) memories Implicit (non- declarative) memories
Explicit Memories (aka, declarative memories) Episodic Memories Semantic Memories Formed by the hippocampus; stored in the cerebral cortex.
Implicit Memories Procedural Memories Conditioned Memories Formed by the cerebellum; stored in the cerebral cortex.
Encoding Getting the information in our heads!!!! How do you encode the info you read in our text?
Two ways to encode information Automatic Processing Effortful Processing
Automatic Processing Unconscious encoding of incidental information. Examples: what table you were seated at a restaurant; what you ate for breakfast, where on the page a word was, who you saw on the way to class today. Things can become automatic with practice (when you first learn a new word, every time you hear it, you consciously and effortfully pull up the definition from meaning; after hearing it 50 times, you can understand the word without effort – reading Shakespeare.)
Effortful Processing Encoding that requires attention and conscious effort. Examples: vocabulary for school, dates, names Rehearsal (conscious repetition) is the most common effortful processing technique. It depends on the amount of time spent processing the information. Overlearning (reviewing things you already know) enhances retention. (This is why Dr. Humble will probably never allow senior exam exemptions.)
Spacing Effect We increase long- term retention when we study or practice over time. Cramming is an inefficient means of studying (ie, cramming = less time for guitar hero)
All-purpose memory demo Bed Quilt Dark Silence Fatigue Clock Snoring Night Toss Tired Artichoke Turn Rest Dream Sleep
Quiz Question Your consciously activated but limited- capacity memory is called ________ memory. A.short-term B.Implicit C.Echoic D.Explicit E.Semantic
Quiz Question Memory of facts is to ________ as memory of skills is to ________. A.brainstem; hippocampus B.Explicit memory; implicit memory C.Automatic processing; effortful processing D.Short-term memory; long-term memory E.Iconic; echoic
Serial Positioning Effect We tend to remember the beginning (primacy effect) and end (recency effect) of a list best. Primacy effect is stronger than recency effect if there is a delay between the list and recall. Order on list Words remembered
Value of elaboration A = does the word contain an “e”? Yes or no. B = how many syllables does the word have? C = does the word evoke pleasant (P) or unpleasant (U) feelings for you? A words: fireplace, movie, shoe, puppy B words: tortilla, window, goldfish, basketball C words: Dickens, soda, popsicle, dream From which list did you remember the most? Why?
Chunking Organizing items into familiar, manageable units. Often it will occur automatically. Chunk- from Goonies 1-4-9-2-1-7-7-6-1-8-1-2-1-9-4-1 Take 10 seconds to try to remember this number list: Now, try again: 1492, 1776, 1812, 1941 What are some other examples of chunking?
Tricks to Encoding Mnemonic Devices Mnemonic Devices = memory tricks -Often use imagery (peg word, method of loci, “hippo on campus…”) -May use chunking (King Philip Came Over for Great Spaghetti, SOHCOHTOA, My very earnest mother just served us nine [pizzas], ROY G. BIV) Links to examples of mnemonic devices. Give me some more examples….
Self-Reference Effect The idea that we remember things when they relate to ourselves. What do we do in class to take advantage of this?
Study pitfalls 1.Visual encoding: thinking about the appearance of the word 2.Acoustic encoding: thinking about the sound of the word (unless it is set to music—then it is great for rote memorization) 3.The next-in-line effect: we seldom remember what the person has just said or done if we are next. 4.Information minutes before sleep is seldom remembered; in the hour before sleep, well remembered. 5.Taped info played while asleep is registered by ears, but we do not remember it.
Quiz Question In order to remember to buy sugar, ham, oranges, and potatoes the next time he does to the grocery store, Nabil forms the word “SHOP” with the first letter of each item. He is using a memory aid known as A.Chunking B.The spacing effect C.The serial position effect D.The method of loci E.The next-in-line effect
Quiz Question When Carlos was promoted, he moved into a new office with a new phone extension. Every time he is asked for his phone number, Carlos first thinks of his old extension, illustrating the effects of A.proactive interference B.Retroactive interference C.Encoding failure D.Storage failure