Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Information Processing Module 20. What is Memory? Process of encoding, storage, and retrieval. Learning that persists over time. Encoding Get info in.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Information Processing Module 20. What is Memory? Process of encoding, storage, and retrieval. Learning that persists over time. Encoding Get info in."— Presentation transcript:

1 Information Processing Module 20

2 What is Memory? Process of encoding, storage, and retrieval. Learning that persists over time. Encoding Get info in Storage Retain the info Retrieval Getting the information out

3 In-Class ActivityA Look Into Memory Take out a sheet of paper Write down, in order, all responses that come to mind Ready?

4 What are the names of the seven dwarfs in the story of Snow White ? Dont ask a friend!

5 What are the names of the seven dwarfs in the story of Snow White? Difficult? Why? Never learned the names (encoding) Length of time (storage) Distractions (retrieval)

6 What if you had a list to choose from? GrouchyGabbyFearful SleepySmileyJumpy HopefulShyDroopy DopeySniffyWishful PuffyDumpySneezy LazyPopGrumpy BashfulCheerfulTeach ShortyNiftyHappy DocWheezyStubby

7 What are the names of the seven dwarfs in the story of Snow White? The names… Sleepy, Dopey, Grumpy, Sneezy, Happy, Doc & Bashful Get more names correct with list? Why? Recall vs. Recognition

8 What are the names of the seven dwarfs in the Disney movie Snow White? Feel like you knew a name but couldnt recall it? Why? Tip of the tongue phenomenon Retrieval failure

9 In-Class Activity – Part 2… Turn your paper over or fold in half Write down the names of the seven dwarfs Easier than before? Short term memory vs. long term memory

10 Encoding: Getting Information In Automatic Processing Time Space Frequency Well-learned material Effortful Processing

11 Encoding: Getting Information In Effortful Processing Ebbinghaus: Rehearsal & Overlearning

12 How do we encode? Serial Position Effect

13 How do we encode? Spacing Effect Distributed vs. Cramming Rehearsal Primacy & Recency

14 What do we encode? Meaningful Information Personally meaningful Related to previously learned info Encoded Images Mental pictures Mnemonics Kids Please Close Our Front Gate Slowly

15 What do we encode? Organized Information Chunking ROY G BIV Phone numbers… Hierarchies

16 This might help you study…

17 Lets test your encoding! iclicker question According to the serial position effect, when recalling a list of words you should have the greatest difficulty remembering those: A) at the beginning of the list B) at the end of the list C) in the middle of the list D) at the beginning and the end of the list

18 iclicker question You are most likely to automatically encode information about: A) Politicians names B) New phone numbers C) What you did before and after you ate breakfast D) What we learn today

19 19 Storage: Retaining the Information Sensory Memory Working/ Short-term Memory Long-term Memory Encoding RetrievalEncoding Events Retrieval

20 Storage- Retaining the Information Sensory Memory Fleeting representation unless we attend Lasts for ~ second Iconic & Echoic

21 Storage Working/Short-Term Memory 20 secs – couple minutes Hold a limited amount of info (7 +/- 2) No active processing = no short-term memories disappear

22 Storage Long-Term Memory Info stored; can be retrieved Lasts indefinitely Can hold billions of pieces of info

23 Storage- How do we do it? Synaptic Changes Pathway of neural activation creates a stored memory Path reinforced with use

24 24 Storage Stress Hormones Heightened emotions = stronger memories Boosts activity in memory-forming brain areas More replay= stronger connections Can we take a pill for this?

25 Storage Implicit Memory Memory for procedures & skill acquisition Ex: Driving a car Cerebellum Explicit Memory Memory for facts & experiences Ex: Who was your first kiss? Hippocampus-temporary storage site Cortex

26 Retrieval- Getting Information Out 3 Retrieval Types Recall: generate information Recognition: identify items Relearning: learn material for a second time

27 Retrieval Retrieval Cues: Anchor points used to access the info later 27

28 28 Retrieval Context Effects Remember better if cues present at encoding are present at retrieval

29 Mood-Congruent Memory Recall experiences consistent with current mood Retrieval

30 30 Déjà Vu Familiar situation can trigger feelings of Ive been here before

31 Another Activity… 2 volunteers 1 with musical knowledge (majors, private lessons) 1 with little musical knowledge

32 Retrieval & Expertise Expertise Development Central concepts become increasingly elaborated, organized & interconnected

33 Iclicker Question When 80-year-old Ida looked at her old wedding pictures, she was flooded with vivid memories of the early years of her marriage, which she had not thought about in decades. The pictures served as powerful: A) Encoding cues B) Iconic memories C) Implicit memories D) Retrieval cues

34 Iclicker Question Memory of facts is to ________ as memory of skills is to ________. A) Brainstem; Hippocampus B) Explicit Memory; Implicit Memory C) Automatic Processing; Effortful Processing D) Short-term Memory; Long-term Memory

35 So could our memory ever be too good? The women who cant forget…

36 Mini-writing #9 You have a friend who is struggling in a class. Now that you know so much about memory, identify 2 effects that we have learned about in class that pertain to memory that could help him. Explain each effect and how each effect would improve his test performance. Effortful processing Rehearsal Overlearning Serial position effect Spacing Effect Imagery Meaningfulness Mnemonics Chunking Retrieval Cues Hierarchies Context Effects Sleep


Download ppt "Information Processing Module 20. What is Memory? Process of encoding, storage, and retrieval. Learning that persists over time. Encoding Get info in."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google