Encoding that requires attention and conscious effort. Examples: vocabulary for school, dates, names Rehearsal (conscious repetition) is the most common effortful processing technique. It depends on the amount of time spent processing the information. Overlearning (reviewing things you already know) enhances retention.
Rehearsed nonsense syllables 8 times to remember them perfectly JIH, BAZ, FUB, YOX, SUJ, XIR, DAX, LEQ, VUM, PID, KEL, WAV, TUV, ZOF, GEK, HIW This is how well he remembered them the next day…
How did you do on List 1? List 2? Were there trends to what we remembered and what we forgot as a class? If there was a difference between the two lists, why do you think that was?
We tend to remember the beginning (primacy effect) and end (recency effect) of a list best. Primacy effect is stronger than recency effect if there is a delay between the list and recall. Order on list Words remembered
We tend to not remember exactly what happened, we remember what we encoded. Which is best: Visual encoding of images? Acoustic encoding of sounds? Semantic encoding of meaning
Imagery: Mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding.
Mnemonic Devices Mnemonic Devices = memory tricks -Often use imagery (peg word, method of loci, “hippo on campus…”) -May use chunking (SOHCAHTOA, My very earnest mother just served us nine [pizzas], ROY G. BIV) Links to examples of mnemonic devices. Give me some more examples….
Associating a familiar location with a to-be remembered topic
Organizing items into familiar, manageable units. Often it will occur automatically. Chunk- from Goonies 1-4-9-2-1-7-7-6-1-8-1-2-1-9-4-1 Take 10 seconds to try to remember this number list: Now, try again: 1492, 1776, 1812, 1941 What are some other examples of chunking?
Extraordinary memories - how do they do it? Extraordinary memories - how do they do it?
Creating outlines, topic sentences, subtitles, etc aids in encoding and retrieval. Similar to schemas
In order to remember to buy sugar, ham, oranges, and potatoes the next time he does to the grocery store, Nabil forms the word “SHOP” with the first letter of each item. He is using a memory aid known as A. Chunking B. The spacing effect C. The serial position effect D. The method of loci E. The next-in-line effect
Registers incoming information from the environment Only there for a few seconds. Example – you will not remember the color of your neighbor’s shirt tomorrow unless you process it
Iconic Memory Visual Sensory memory that lasts for less than a second George Sperling tested our visual recall Try It Yourself Echoic Store: the portion of sensory memory that handles memories of sounds (remains 3 or 4 seconds) Echoic Memory
Memory that holds a few items briefly. Seven digits (plus or minus two). The info will be stored into long-term or forgotten. How do you store things from short-term to long-term? Rehearsal You must repeat things over and over to put them into your long-term memory.
Memories do NOT reside in single specific spots of our brain. They are not electrical (if the electrical activity were to shut down in your brain, then restart- you would NOT start with a blank slate).
Stored in little neural parts, not video clips Long term potentiation: the strengthening of the pathways among neurons in the brain when those neurons are repeatedly used Mice without LTP cannot find way out of maze
Kandel and Schwartz experiment on Aplysia sea snails 20,000 large nerve cells After conditioning, neurons released more serotonin Increased synaptic efficiency = increased neural circuits.
Episodic Memories Semantic Memories Formed by the hippocampus; stored in the cerebral cortex.
Procedural Memories Conditioned Memories Formed by the cerebellum; stored in the cerebral cortex.
Darren was asked to memorize a list of letters that included v, q, y, and j. He later recalled these letters as e, u, i, and k, suggesting that the original letters had been encoded A. Automatically B. Visually C. Semantically D. Acoustically
Memory of facts is to ________ as memory of skills is to ________. A. brainstem; hippocampus B. Explicit memory; implicit memory C. Automatic processing; effortful processing D. Short-term memory; long-term memory E. Iconic; echoic
Difficulty of Task Was the exercise easy or difficult. It depends on what factors? Whether you like Disney movies how long ago you watched the movie how loud the people are around you when you are trying to remember
Sleepy, Dopey, Grumpy, Sneezy, Happy, Doc and Bashful
With recall- you must retrieve the information from your memory (fill-in-the blank tests). With recognition- you must identify the target from possible targets (multiple-choice tests). Which is easier? Did you do better on the first or second dwarf memory exercise?
Relearning: a memory measure that assesses the amount of time saved when relearning previously.
Priming: the activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory Context effects State-dependent learning: when you remember better in the original context Mood-congruent memories: we recall experiences that are consistent with our current mood
bits of related information we encode while processing a target piece of info. (something from the environment) Scuba divers remember lists of words better underwater Aaron Samuels helps Katy remember how to do Calculus better in Mean Girls
It helps to put yourself back in the same context you experienced (encoded) something. If you study on your favorite chair at home, you will probably score higher if you also took the test on the chair.
That eerie sense that you have experienced something before. What is occurring is that the current situation cues past experiences that are very similar to the present one- your mind gets confused. Is déjà vu really a glitch in the Matrix?
The idea that we remember things when they relate to ourselves. What do we do in class to take advantage of this?
1. Visual encoding: thinking about the appearance of the word 2. Acoustic encoding: thinking about the sound of the word (unless it is set to music—then it is great for rote memorization) 3. The next-in-line effect: we seldom remember what the person has just said or done if we are next. 4. Information minutes before sleep is seldom remembered; in the hour before sleep, well remembered. 5. Taped info played while asleep is registered by ears, but we do not remember it.
When Carlos was promoted, he moved into a new office with a new phone extension. Every time he is asked for his phone number, Carlos first thinks of his old extension, illustrating the effects of A. proactive interference B. Retroactive interference C. Encoding failure D. Storage failure