Presentation on theme: "Encoding Getting the information in our heads!!!! How do you encode the info you read in our text?"— Presentation transcript:
Encoding Getting the information in our heads!!!! How do you encode the info you read in our text?
Two ways to encode information Automatic Processing Effortful Processing
Automatic Processing Unconscious encoding of incidental information. You encode space, time and word meaning without effort. Things can become automatic with practice. For example, if I tell you that you are a jerk, you will encode the meaning of what I am saying to you without any effort.
Effortful Processing Encoding that requires attention and conscious effort. Rehearsal is the most common effortful processing technique. Through enough rehearsal, what was effortful becomes automatic.
Things to remember about Encoding 1.The next-In-Line effect: we seldom remember what the person has just said or done if we are next. 2.Information minutes before sleep is seldom remembered; in the hour before sleep, well remembered. 3.Taped info played while asleep is registered by ears, but we do not remember it.
Spacing Effect We encode better when we study or practice over time. DO NOT CRAM!!!!!
List the U.S. Presidents Take out a piece of paper and….
The Presidents WashingtonTaylorHarrisonEisenhower J.AdamsFillmoreClevelandKennedy JeffersonPierceMcKinleyL.Johnson MadisonBuchananT.RooseveltNixon MonroeLincolnTaftFord JQ AdamsA.JohnsonWilsonCarter JacksonGrantHardingReagan Van BurenHayesCoolidgeBush HarrisonGarfieldHooverClinton TylerArthurFD.RooseveltBush Jr. PolkClevelandTrumanDean
Serial Positioning Effect Our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list. If we graph an average person remembers presidential list- it would probably look something like this. Presidents Recalled
Types of Encoding Semantic Encoding: the encoding of meaning, like the meaning of words Acoustic Encoding: the encoding of sound, especially the sounds of words. Visual Encoding: the encoding of picture images. Encoding exercise
Self-Reference Effect An example of how we encode meaning very well. The idea that we remember things (like adjectives) when they are used to describe ourselves. Peg-word system
Tricks to Encode Use imagery: mental pictures Mnemonic Devices use imagery. Like my “peg word” system or…. Links to examples of mnemonic devices. "Mary Very Easily Makes Jam Saturday Unless No Plums." Mars, Venus, Earth, Mercury, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto. Give me some more examples….
Chunking Organizing items into familiar, manageable units. Often it will occur automatically. Chunk- from Goonies 1-4-9-2-1-7-7-6-1-8-1-2-1-9-4-1 Do these numbers mean anything to you? 1492, 1776, 1812, 1941 how about now?
Chunking 1,3 and 5 make little sense to us. But when we chunk the characters differently (2,4,6) they become easy to remember.