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Deficiencies in the Internal Structure of the UN affecting its Independency Presented By: Alshymaa AboulKheir.

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Presentation on theme: "Deficiencies in the Internal Structure of the UN affecting its Independency Presented By: Alshymaa AboulKheir."— Presentation transcript:

1 Deficiencies in the Internal Structure of the UN affecting its Independency Presented By: Alshymaa AboulKheir

2 "The world's biggest arms suppliers are the US, UK, Russia, France and China. They are also the five permanent members of the UN security council" (Andrew Niccol, 2005). Lord of War, the Movie

3 Introduction About the World War II UN established in 1945 by the “Allied Powers” The Charter signed by 50 representatives on the 26 th of June Officially formed on the 24 th of October by the authorization of the Big Five and other nations.

4 Main Purposes Maintaining peace and security Developing friendly relations among nations Attaining international cooperation in solving international problems


6 Secretariat International UN working staff, responsible for executing several tasks of the UN offices everywhere Headed by the UN Secretary-General Responsibilities Detecting peace and security threats and administering peace-keeping operations Surveying economic and social trends and preparing reports on sustainable development of nations and on humanitarian related issues.

7 General Assembly Consists of representatives of all member states of the UN President elected yearly from among the representatives Special sessions and Special emergency sessions may take place Responsibilities mainly concerned with making recommendations regarding all issues related to the UN, with the exception of discussing an issue or a dispute that is currently discussed by the Security Council.

8 General Assembly election of non-permanent members of the Security Council, and other UN organs members The Assembly may also take action if the Security Council fails to act the Assembly is only capable of making "non-binding" recommendations and resolutions to member states on international issues.

9 Security Council Most powerful organ in the UN Organization Formed of 15 members, 5 permanent, and 10 non-permanent members. Permanent members enjoy the Veto Power The Permanent members are the US, UK, China, Soviet Union, and France

10 Security Council Responsibilities Maintaining peace and security and investigating any dispute or situation that may lead to international friction and violence. Recommending methods for settling these disputes and formulating plans Determining the existence of any threats to peace and security and to take military actions against an aggressor. Recommending the appointment of the Secretary-General, and electing judges of the International Court of Justice.

11 International Court of Justice Concerned with a wide range of judicial activity Consists of 15 judges elected by the GA and the SC Its main function is to give advisory opinions on legal issues Responsible for settling conflicts between states

12 The Economic and Social Council Concerned with the economic well-being of states, and the maintaining economic development all around the world. Consists of 54 member states, elected by the GA Specialized agencies and programs: FAO, ILO, IMF, WHO, UNDCP, UNDP

13 Deficiencies 1.The Veto Power 2.The Increased Centralization 3.The Funding System

14 Veto Power gives them the power to abandon any substantive decision regardless of the number of votes of all the other 10 non-permanent member states. formerly found to guarantee the interests of the founders of the UN since 1972, the United States became the most frequent user of the veto Since the year 1989 till 2004 the veto was used 19 times, 13 of them by the US, and 11 of the 13 in issues and resolutions regarding Israel.

15 Veto Power Arguments against it Economical, Political, and Social changes since 1945... The 5 Big countries are no more good representatives of powers. slows down important political decisions exercising of the veto as a political aid for allied countries Permanent members are the most arms suppliers!!

16 Use of the Veto in the SC Graph prepared by Benjamin Holt, September, 1999 (updated since then)

17 Centralization Arguments against it UN decisions are all tied to the SC, and the SC decisions are tied to the 5 permanent members. The election system –SG, elected by GA on “recommendations” of the SC (if any of the permanent members of the SC refuses an elected person by the GA, he/she would be eliminated.) –ICJ judges, elected by GA and SC (Veto power still valid!) –Trusteeship council, consists of the 5 permanent members of SC The GA and the ESC are the only 2 organs that their members are elected by the GA

18 The Funding System The UN is financed by measured voluntary contributions from member states Contributions depends on the ability of each member state to pay (its economical state) A ceiling is made for states contributions of 22% The US is the only state that meets that figure

19 UN regular budgets, and the monthly contributions of the 15 largest payers. Source: United Nations: 2006 Status of Contributions to the Regular Budget, International Tribunals, Peacekeeping Operations and Capital Master Plan

20 Member states debt vs US debt Source: United Nations: 2006 Status of Contributions to the Regular Budget, International Tribunals, Peacekeeping Operations and Capital Master Plan

21 Application: Humanitarian Decision Making Israel war on Lebanon 2006 The case: On Wednesday the 12th of July 2006, Israeli military attacked south Lebanon by intensive air strikes and bombing targeting infrastructure and civilians This attack was a reaction by the Israeli government after Hezbo Allah captured 2 of their soldiers The 34 days of war –from 12 July to 14 August 2006- killed over 1,500 people, mostly Lebanese civilians, severely damaged Lebanese infrastructure, and displaced about 900,000 Lebanese and 300,000 Israelis.

22 Israel war on Lebanon 2006 US role: "Washington-financed and organized war machine“ Piers Mostyn, a socialist resistance, in the International view point, in his article Israel’s new War on Lebanon "There is every indication that “never-ending war” is precisely the strategy of the Bush administration in the Middle East“ Bill Van Auken, a writer in the world socialist website, in his article Behind Bush’s truce plan "The suppression of Palestine which is being allowed to fester, the invasion of Afghanistan, the conquest of Iraq and most recently, the unrestrained destruction of Lebanon have all been carried out in the name of the war against terrorism" Abdulla Badawi, Prime Minister of Malaysia, in the 61st session of the UNGA

23 Israel war on Lebanon 2006 US role: “we’ve got a strategy—a strategy for freedom in the Middle East which protects the American people in the long run. And we’ve got a strategy to deal with the situations that arise in the Middle East” George Bush, the US president, in a conference before the UN resolution “The Arms Control Export Act forbids arms transfers to countries that use American weapons for non-defensive purposes, such as attacking civilians. Thus, in order to protect the profits of politically influential American arms merchants, the Democrats joined with Republicans in supporting language in the resolution claiming that Israel’s actions were “legitimate self-defense.”" Stephen Zunes, in his report for the FPIF article 27 in the UN Charter states that, a party to a dispute shall abstain from voting

24 Israel war on Lebanon 2006 UN Actions: “The UN itself serves only as a tool for imperialist policy“ Bill Van Auken "The United Nation's highest body upholds Israeli War Crimes, in Violation of the UN Charter" Michel Chossudovsky, from the in his article "The UN system is potentially in jeopardy: The United Nation's highest body has not only failed to acknowledge the existence of pervasive war crimes in violation of the UN charter, it has also acted in the interests of the Israeli government which has ordered these war crimes". Michel Chossudovsky

25 Israel war on Lebanon 2006 UN Actions: Amnesty International calls for the immediate establishment of a comprehensive, independent and impartial inquiry into violations of international humanitarian law. (Amnesty International report as of August 2006 ) –should examine in particular the impact of this conflict on the civilian population –should propose effective measures to hold accountable those responsible for crimes under international law –ensure that the victims receive full reparation

26 Conclusion The UN had succeeded to significantly decrease the rate of violence, wars, and human rights abuse in the world The paper discusses its failures and deficiencies in order to enable it to improve and progress for attaining its aims and purposes. Urgent radical reforms for the UN internal structure is terribly needed

27 “To revitalize our common endeavor is to renew our faith not only in the UN's programs and purposes but also in each other” Ban Ki-moon, the 8 th Secretarty General of the UN, in his acceptance speech, October 2006

28 Thank You for your Attention Further Questions are welcomed

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