2 PurposeAn international organization founded in 1945 after the Second World War by 51 countriesCommitted to maintaininginternational peace and security,developing friendly relations among nations andpromoting social progress, better living standards and human rights.The UN can take action on a wide range of issuespeacekeeping, peace-building, conflict prevention and humanitarian assistancesustainable development, environment and refugees protection, disaster relief, counter terrorism, disarmament and non-proliferationpromoting democracy, human rights, governance, economic and social development and international health, clearing landmines, expanding food production.Provides a forum for its 192 Member States to express their views, through the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council and other bodies and committees. (DIPLOMACY over WAR)
3 Structure and Organization General AssemblyMain body with 192 member statesThe work of the UN year-round derives largely from the mandates given by the General AssemblySecurity CouncilSee separate sheetEconomic and Social CouncilMain organ which coordinates the economic, social and related work of UNInternational Court of JusticeSettles legal disputes between states and gives advisory opinions to the UN and its specialized agencies. Statute is an integral part of the United Nations Charter.15 judges, representative of the globe
4 Security CouncilHas primary responsibility, under the UN Charter, for the maintenance of international peace and security.5 Permanent Members (China, US, UK, France and Russia Federation)10 rotating members (elected for two years)Each council member has 1 voteDecisions on procedural matters (when to call a vote) are made by an affirmative vote of at least nine of the 15 membersDecisions on substantive matters (placing sanctions on Iran) require nine votes, including the concurring votes of all five permanent members. This is the rule of "great Power unanimity", often referred to as the "veto" power.Under the Charter, all Members of the United Nations agree to accept and carry out the decisions of the Security Council. While other organs of the United Nations make recommendations to Governments, the Council alone has the power to take decisions which Member States are obligated under the Charter to carry out
5 Reform Increasing role of UN itself WORLD GOVERNMENT Limiting role for humanitarian purposes onlyFocused interest on reforming the Security Council1992- Germany and Japan demand permanent membership seats. Brazil and India also demanded permanent membership seats G4Regional rivals of G4 asked for permanent seats- known as the Coffee club (Italy, Argentina, SK, Spain, Mexico, Pakistan)Africa asked for permanent seats, due to past historical injustices and for the fact that most of the UN’s agenda takes place on the continentME Representation. Leaving out Muslim representative may leave out large population of Muslims. Concern that ME permanent seat might veto the UN’s intervention with the area (which historically and currently requires UN intervention) and cause issue with other religious groups of the worldThe power of veto:Prevents the Council from acting to address pressing international issuethe Security Council passed no resolutions on most major Cold War conflicts, including the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia, the Vietnam War, and the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. Additionally, the veto applies to the selection of the UN's Secretary-General, as well as any amendments to the UN Charter, giving the P5 great influence over these processes
6 FundingThe UN stipulates that funding for resolutions are to be paid by members. Many times the US withholds their assessments to enforce or force reforms.Charter (section IV) stipulates that any member behind in their dues will lose their vote in the General Assembly
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