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The Creation of the United Nations And the start of the Cold War.

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1 The Creation of the United Nations And the start of the Cold War

2 Finally... Peace? Which organization failed to maintain world peace and order after World War I? Why did it fail? What would have made it better? League of Nations had no armed forces of its own. Most powerful members were uncommitted to the concept of collective security.

3 Creation of the United Nations: After WW2, countries were looking for a new organization to fill the role of the LofN. – It would need more power. April 1945: 51 countries led by Britain, Soviet Union and United States met in San Francisco to create the U.N. Peace, Social and Economic progress are the basic goals.

4 The UN has 4 specific goals: 1.Keeping world peace and preventing new wars. 2.Encouraging cooperation among nations. 3.Defending human rights and helping to promote equality. 4.Improving the standard of living for all nations.

5 The Structure of the United Nations

6 The General Assembly “occupies a central position as the chief deliberative, policymaking and representative organ of the United Nations. It provides a unique forum for multilateral discussion of the full spectrum of international issues covered by the Charter.” All 192 member nations have a seat. 1 vote each. 2/3 majority required. discuss and make recommendations on any issue likely to affect world peace. Forum for discussion, supervise special agencies, control budget.

7 The Security Council Responsible for maintaining world peace. – Peace enforcement. Has the power to force members to carry out its decisions. 5 permanent members (Victors of WW2) are given veto power. 10 members elected for 2 years each. 9/15 votes required.

8 The Secretariat Secretariat is composed of the day to day workers at the UN (about 40k in 2009). Secretary General of the U.N. Is part of the secretariat. (Ban Ki-moon)

9 The International Court of Justice Located in the Hague (Netherlands). Also known as the World Court. Deals with a large variety of cases: – International disputes – Trade issues – War crimes/genocide. Also provides legal opinions to the UN

10 Humanitarian Agencies Oversees several specialized agencies including: United Nations Children’s Fund: UNICEF United Nations Refugee Agency: UNHCR – Stand for: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees World Health Organization (WHO): These agencies provide assistance and aid worldwide.

11 Selected Principles of the U.N. From Article 2 of the UN charter. Consider the following. The Organization is based on the principle of the sovereign equality of all its Members. All Members shall settle their international disputes by peaceful means in such a manner that international peace and security, and justice, are not endangered. All Members shall refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any state, or in any other manner inconsistent with the Purposes of the United Nations. The Organization shall ensure that states which are not Members of the United Nations act in accordance with these Principles so far as may be necessary for the maintenance of international peace and security.

12 Assignment: Write a one paragraph (minimum) reflection on the following question in your Journal. Based on what you know about history since the end of WW2, and taking recent events into account, has the United Nations been a success or a failure? Why?

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