Presentation on theme: "“The Nazis and Anne Frank: Evil meets a young girl” Die Nazis und Anne Frank: Der B öse trefft ein junges Mädchen."— Presentation transcript:
“The Nazis and Anne Frank: Evil meets a young girl” Die Nazis und Anne Frank: Der B öse trefft ein junges Mädchen
Deutschland nach die erste Weltkrieg (Germany after the First World War) Germany was defeated in 1918 by the principal allied countries of the United States, the United Kingdom, and France The Treaty of Versailles (which ended the war) ordered Germany to give up historic German land and pay $63 billion in damages (about $768 billion today; they finally paid this off in 2010)
Deutschland nach die erste Weltkrieg (Germany after the First World War) With so many dead and billions of deutsche Marks (German money) to pay in damages, the War left German society decimated Money was so worthless in the following years that a train car of German money couldn’t buy a loaf of bread. People were burning it for fuel.
Deutschland nach die erste Weltkrieg (Germany after the First World War) Germany tried to reinvent itself by drafting a new constitution and electing a new president, Paul von Hindenburg No one was happy with the new government. Conflicts between Communists, democrats, and those loyal to the old king caused many problems in the new Germany. Paul von Hindenburg
Ein neues Partei (A New Party) In the 1920s, a new party emerged in German politics: die Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (“The National Socialist German Workers’ Party). The name is so long (even in German) that it was shorted simply to the “Nazi” Party It was lead by Adolf Hitler
Die Nazis (The Nazis) Believed in restoring Germany to its “rightful” place in the world Blamed all of Germany’s problems on the Treaty of Versailles, which they said had been written by Jews to humiliate Germany (Jews were a historic scapegoat in European history)
Die Nazis (The Nazis) Many Germans, upset about living in poverty and the way their country was headed, decided that the Nazis – with their promises for a better future for Germany – were the answer. Hitler and the Nazis were elected to the Reichstag (the German government) on January 31, 1933
Deutschland unter der Nazis (Germany under the Nazis) Immediately, the Nazis began a program to win the German people completely over to their side. In 1934, the Nazis burned down the Reichstag building under Hitler’s command, and then blamed the fire on Jews and Communists out to destroy the new German government The Reichstag began passing laws to discriminate against Jews and Communists The Reichstag building on fire
Deutschland unter der Nazis (Germany under the Nazis) Hitler and the Nazis became obsessed with creating a perfect German society lead by the perfect race: the Germans. To create a perfect society, all “imperfect” people had to be disposed of; these groups included Jews, homosexuals, the mentally handicapped, gypsies, Jehovah’s Witnesses, and anyone who disagreed with Hitler – who was now calling himself “Der Führer” (“The Leader”)
Die Unerwünschten (The Undesirables) In 1935, the Nazi government began a program to take mentally handicapped children and adults and place them in care facilities, where they could be cared for. This was a cover for what they were really about to do: euthanize them. Propaganda movies and posters were made to convince people that these undesirables must be taken out of society. The name of this Nazi film about mentally handicapped people means “Life without Hope”
Die Unerwünschten (The Undesirables) This poster reads: “60,000 Reichsmarks is what this sick man costs the people of society over the course of his life. We need NEW PEOPLE.”
Die Unerwünschten (The Undesirables) Conservative estimates indicate that at least 5,000 mentally handicapped children alone were euthanized. The number was probably far higher. This does not count adults, and certainly does not count the number of adults who were castrated to keep them from reproducing and spreading their “unfit” genes. Soon, Hitler’s attention turned from the mentally handicapped to other “biological enemies;” namely, the Jews.
Die Juden auf Deutschland (The Jews in Germany) Jews had been a big part of German society for hundreds of years. However, in 1935, the Nazis stripped all Jews of their German citizenship. In 1937, Hitler opened the first Arbeitslager (“Work camp” or “concentration camp”) at Dachau to hold people who disagreed with him or who he found deplorable. This was the first in a long line of camps that would lead to the Holocaust. Dachau from the air, 1938
Die » Kristallnacht « (“The Night of Broken Glass”) The Nazis’ agenda for the Jews of Germany and Austria (which Germany had just acquired) became clear on November 9-10, 1938. This is now called die Kristallnacht – the “Night of Broken Glass” Nazi thugs destroyed Jewish property and mercilessly beat Jews throughout the country.
Die Deutschen besiegen Europa (The Germans conquer Europe) In 1938-39,Germany began systematically annexing countries or parts of countries that had high German populations. They completely took over Austria, and then were given a highly German section of Czechoslovakia to avoid a war. Hitler took over the rest of Czechoslovakia shortly afterwards anyway. German troops enter Vienna, Austria, March 15, 1938
Der Krieg beginnt (The War begins) On September 1, 1939, Germany invaded Poland. Two days later, the United Kingdom and France declared war on Germany, thus starting the Second World War. During 1939-40, the Germans swept across Europe in the famous Blitzkrieg (“Lightning War”), taking over Poland, Holland, Belgium, France, and advancing far into the Soviet Union.
Die » Endlösung « (The “Final Solution”) With Germany in control of much of Europe, Hitler and his staff turned their attention to ridding the continent of Jews and other “biological enemies” once and for all. This was codenamed “The Final Solution.” The solution involved rounding up all undesirables and shipping them to concentration camps such as Auschwitz- Birkenau, Buchenwald, Dachau, Bergen-Belsen, and Mauthausen, where they would be exterminated.
Die » Endlösung « (The “Final Solution”) Jews were systematically rounded up into ghettos where they were forced to live in terrible conditions, often with four or five families living in a single, small apartment. This was designed to keep all Jews together so that they could be transported more easily to camps. Photo taken in the ghetto in Warsaw, Poland
Die Arbeitslagern (The Concentration Camps) Jews were eventually corralled into concentration camps. These camps had only one purpose: to exterminate Jews, homosexuals, dissidents, and other people who were deemed “imperfect.” Concentration camps were built in almost every German- controlled territory, especially those with high Jewish populations (see next slide). The sign above the gate of this concentration camp reads “Arbeit macht frei,” which means, “Work will set you free.”
Arbeitslagern auf deutsche Länder (Concentration camps in German territories)
Tod im Arbeitslagern (Death in the concentration camps) When prisoners arrived at the camps, they were immediately sorted into two groups: those fit to work, and those not fit. If you were not fit to work, your life would end shortly after your arrival. Most of these were babies, children under 3, the elderly, and those who were infirm. The most efficient killing technique was the use of the gas chamber. Gas chamber at Auschwitz
Die Gaskammern (The Gas Chambers) A canister of Zyklon B, the poison used in the gas chambers. A crematorium at Auschwitz used to burn the bodies.
Befreiung (Liberation) By April of 1945, as Allied troops began to penetrate deep into German territory, the camps were beginning to be discovered. What Allied troops found there was atrocious. Victims at Dachau, April 1945. Photo taken by the American 101 st Airborne.
Befreiung (Liberation) Box car filled with bodies. Photo taken at Dachau by the American 101 st Airborne, April 1945.
Befreiung (Liberation) Women’s barracks at Auschwitz. Taken by Soviet troops, April 1945.
Befreiung (Liberation) Survivors. Taken at Wobbelin. Taken by the American 82 nd Airborne, April 1945.
Die Ende des Krieges (The End of the War) With Berlin surrounded, Adolf Hitler committed suicide on April 30, 1945. Berlin was overrun by the Soviets two days later. Nazi Germany surrended completely on May 9, 1945, thus ending the war in Europe. Soviet troops raise the Soviet flag over the Reichstag, May 2, 1945.
Wer ist Anne Frank? (Who is Anne Frank?) Born June 12, 1929 in Frankfurt am Main, Germany Parents moved to Amsterdam, the Netherlands in 1933 – the year Hitler was elected. They foresaw the problems he would create for German-Jewish families like their own.
Wer ist Anne Frank? (Who is Anne Frank?) When the Nazis overran Holland in 1940, they immediately began persecuting Dutch Jews as well. In 1942, when it became clear that Dutch Jews like the Franks were to be deported to concentration camps, the family hid in an attic for safety. They hid for four years. This is when Anne began writing her now famous diary. Anne’s actual diary as it appears today.
Wer ist Anne Frank? (Who is Anne Frank?) In 1944, an anonymous collaborator tipped off local Nazi authorities who stormed the secret attic the Franks lived in and arrested them. The family was transported to Bergen-Belsen concentration camp in Germany, where Anne and her sister, Margot, died in 1945. Anne died just three weeks before the camp was liberated by American troops.
Und jetzt, wir treffen Anne… (And now, we meet Anne…)