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Holocaust. Basic Definitions to know Holocaust: attempted genocide resulting in the murder of approximately 12 million people Holocaust: attempted genocide.

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Presentation on theme: "Holocaust. Basic Definitions to know Holocaust: attempted genocide resulting in the murder of approximately 12 million people Holocaust: attempted genocide."— Presentation transcript:

1 Holocaust

2 Basic Definitions to know Holocaust: attempted genocide resulting in the murder of approximately 12 million people Holocaust: attempted genocide resulting in the murder of approximately 12 million people –6 million Jews Genocide: an attempt to eliminate an entire group of people Genocide: an attempt to eliminate an entire group of people Anti-Semitism: hatred of or prejudice against people of the Jewish faith Anti-Semitism: hatred of or prejudice against people of the Jewish faith

3 Background Anti-Semitism has been very common in history Anti-Semitism has been very common in history In 1933, Nazis came to power in Germany In 1933, Nazis came to power in Germany –Led by Adolf Hitler Nazis began to reshape German society Nazis began to reshape German society –Use propaganda to brainwash society and increase support for Nazi policies Nazis also use force to keep power Nazis also use force to keep power –Gestapo: secret police –SS: elite Nazi soldiers

4 The Persecution Begins Early 1930’s: German politicians pass a series of Anti-Jewish laws Early 1930’s: German politicians pass a series of Anti-Jewish laws –Examples:  Jews were forbidden from owning radios or cars  Jews had to abide by curfews  Jewish children were banned from German schools  Jews were banned from most jobs  Jews were forced to register their property with the government

5 : Nuremberg Laws were passed; one of the most famous law codes from Nazi Germany 1935: Nuremberg Laws were passed; one of the most famous law codes from Nazi Germany –German Jews lose citizenship –Jews and Germans forbidden from marrying each other Questions: 1. What impact would the loss of citizenship have on the Jews of Germany?

6 : Berlin, Germany hosted the summer Olympics 1936: Berlin, Germany hosted the summer Olympics –Germans take down their Anti-Jewish propaganda Questions: 1.Why would Germany remove the Anti-Jewish propaganda during the Olympics? 2.How would this relaxation of Anti-Jewish policy affect the outlook of the Jews living in Germany?

7 1938 November, 1938: Anti-Jewish policy in Germany began to escalate with an event known as Kristallnacht or the “Night of Broken Glass” November, 1938: Anti-Jewish policy in Germany began to escalate with an event known as Kristallnacht or the “Night of Broken Glass” –Thousands of Jewish shops and synagogues were attacked and destroyed –Jews were physically attacked, some killed –Tens of thousands arrested and sent to concentration camps

8 1939 WWII provided the opportunity for Germany’s Anti-Jewish policy to escalate even more WWII provided the opportunity for Germany’s Anti-Jewish policy to escalate even more September 1, 1939: Germany invaded Poland to start World War II September 1, 1939: Germany invaded Poland to start World War II As the war expanded, Nazis would take control of millions of Jews living in other countries As the war expanded, Nazis would take control of millions of Jews living in other countries –Germans had to develop a plan for how to deal with these “unwanted” individuals

9 Ghettos Many large cities in Poland were segmented into Ghettos where Jews would be fenced into small areas Many large cities in Poland were segmented into Ghettos where Jews would be fenced into small areas –Warsaw and Lodz had the largest ghettos Very poor conditions: Very poor conditions: –Lack of sanitation, typically no electricity or running water –Overcrowding, disease, starvation Question: 1. What was the purpose of the Ghetto?

10 Einsatzgruppen 1941: WWII expanded with the German invasion of the Soviet Union (Russia) 1941: WWII expanded with the German invasion of the Soviet Union (Russia) –Millions more Jews fall under German control With ghettos already full, Germans developed a new strategy to eliminate the Jewish communities With ghettos already full, Germans developed a new strategy to eliminate the Jewish communities Einsatzgruppen: mobile killing squads were used to murder over 1 million Jews, Poles, and others Einsatzgruppen: mobile killing squads were used to murder over 1 million Jews, Poles, and others –Mass shootings and mass graves Eventually, Germans would abandon the mobile killing squads. Eventually, Germans would abandon the mobile killing squads. Question: Why would the Germans eventually abandon the use of Enisatzgruppen killing squads?

11 The Final Solution Eventually, Nazis started to look for a more “efficient” way of dealing with the “undesirables” of Europe Eventually, Nazis started to look for a more “efficient” way of dealing with the “undesirables” of Europe 1942: Top Nazi officials developed the Final Solution 1942: Top Nazi officials developed the Final SolutionQuestion: What strategies/tactics were included in the Final Solution?

12 Death Camps Specialized facilities, known as Death Camps, were constructed to carry out mass murder Specialized facilities, known as Death Camps, were constructed to carry out mass murder –Auschwitz: most famous example Methods used at Death Camps Methods used at Death Camps –Prisoners went through selection to determine who was strong enough to work and who should die immediately –A gas chamber would be used to murder large numbers of people  Zyklon B was the preferred gas –Bodies were then taken to a crematoria to be burned

13 The End of WWII By , it was clear that the Axis Powers (Germany, Italy, Japan) were going to lose the war. By , it was clear that the Axis Powers (Germany, Italy, Japan) were going to lose the war. Allies (U.S., Great Britain, Soviet Union) began to liberate more and more territory, getting closer and closer to Germany. Allies (U.S., Great Britain, Soviet Union) began to liberate more and more territory, getting closer and closer to Germany.

14 Death March As the Allies started to close in on the Germans, prisoners were often sent on a long Death March As the Allies started to close in on the Germans, prisoners were often sent on a long Death March –Some would march for months at a time, sometimes for hundreds of miles Question: Why would the Germans send prisoners on the Death March?

15 Other Victims Poles Poles Gypsies/Roma Gypsies/Roma Jehovah’s Witnesses Jehovah’s Witnesses Homosexuals Homosexuals People with physical or mental disability or handicap People with physical or mental disability or handicap –T4 Program was a “euthanasia” program designed to carry out “mercy” killings of those who were deemed to be unfit for life

16 Liberation In the early months of 1945, Allied forces began to liberate many of the Nazi concentration camps. In the early months of 1945, Allied forces began to liberate many of the Nazi concentration camps. When the world learned of the atrocities committed against Jews, and other groups, people began to demand punishment for those responsible. When the world learned of the atrocities committed against Jews, and other groups, people began to demand punishment for those responsible. By that time, however, many top Nazis had either fled the country or committed suicide By that time, however, many top Nazis had either fled the country or committed suicide –Ex: Hitler committed suicide in April, 1945

17 Nuremberg Trials Following the Holocaust, surviving Nazis were put on trial for their involvement. These trials were known as the Nuremberg Trials Following the Holocaust, surviving Nazis were put on trial for their involvement. These trials were known as the Nuremberg Trials –Those who were found guilty of war crimes and crimes against humanity were often executed.

18 Word Bank for Crossword Puzzle AlliesZyklon B Axis PowersPropaganda GestapoKristallnacht Gas ChamberNuremberg Laws PolandNuremberg Trials Final SolutionDeath March HitlerNazis GhettoHolocaust GenocideEinsatzgruppen AuschwitzT4 Program


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