Presentation on theme: "Scripture. Author Traditionally identified as Matthew/Levi, apostle and former tax collector. Matt 9:9; 10:3 Mark 2:14 He is a Jewish-Christian on."— Presentation transcript:
Author Traditionally identified as Matthew/Levi, apostle and former tax collector. Matt 9:9; 10:3 Mark 2:14 He is a Jewish-Christian on account of the use of the OT. A possible self-reference is the phrase regarding the “scribe who has been instructed in the kingdom of heaven.” Matt 13:52
Date Most scholars date it to the 80s, assuming Markan priority and a date following the destruction of Jerusalem (see 22:7, but see also 24:2) Papias: (early 2 nd century bishop), “Now Matthew arranged in order the saying in the Hebrew language, and each one interpreted/translated as he was able.” Augustine: (354-430)“… only Matthew is regarded to have written in the Hebrew language, the others in Greek.”
Date cont. If Mark was written first (68) why is Matthew first in the Canon? Early Christians believed that it had actually been composed by one of Jesus’ own Apostles. Most likely, though, the Gospel of Matthew was termed the first Gospel because it is well-ordered and contains detailed teaching lessons, especially in the area of Christian ethics. Because of its emphasis on the fulfillment of OT prophecies, it makes a great link between the OT & NT.
Date cont. Gospel of Matthew contains about 80% of Mark’s Gospel. About 630 verses are common to Matthew (total: 1068 verses/28 chapters) and Mark (678 verses/16 chapters): 330 verses of Triple tradition… Besides a good command of Greek, Matthew probably knew Hebrew/Aramaic Faithfully follows Mark’s outline of Jesus ministry in Galilee; journey to Jerusalem and his Passion, Death, and Resurrection.
Date cont. Several areas Matthew improves Mark’s Greek. He writes more reverentially about Jesus and stresses the miraculous element found in Mark’s Gospel. Bottom line: Matthew borrowed heavily from Mark.
Audience Jewish-Christians in Palestine Many OT references Jewish customs not explained ( see Matt 15:2) Many modern scholars instead identify the audience as Jewish and Gentile Christians in Antioch, Syria ( see Matt 4:24) Gehenna (hell) and Beelzebul (devil) “Kingdom of Heaven” instead of “Kingdom of God” Jews held God’s name as most sacred and would not pronounce it.
Purpose To encourage Jewish-Christians, showing them that Jesus is the Jewish Messiah and fulfillment of the OT.
Structure (A) Five Sermons: There are 5 sermons of Jesus which help to organize Matthew’s Gospel. Each sermon is preceded by a narrative section, and ends with a formula “When Jesus finished (7:28; 11:1; 13:53; 19:1; 26:1). Matt 5-7 Sermon on the Mount: entry into the Kingdom Matt 10 Sermon on Mission: outgoing mission of the community Matt 13 Sermon in Parables: Parables of the Kingdom Matt 18 Sermon on the Church: inner structure of the community Matt 23 & 24-25 Woes + Eschatological Sermon: completion of the Kingdom
Structure (B) Matt 1-2, Matthew begins with an Infancy Narrative
Structure (C) Matt 26-27, Matthew ends with a Passion Narrative and a Resurrection Narrative, Matt 28.
Important Themes in Matthew Judgment Jesus is Emmanuel Discipleship Church Right Instruction
Judgment Several parables deal directly with the second coming of Christ and the theme of the Last Judgment. Perhaps some of Matthew’s audience was getting discouraged that the Lord had not yet returned in his full glory. The Evangelist had to remind them that we should always be ready for the Lord’s return.
Jesus is Emmanuel Emmanuel means “God with us,” the Messiah, who wills the salvation of Jew and Gentile alike.
Discipleship Following Jesus is difficult. More than lip service, it requires humility, rejection, even suffering.
Church Matthew’s is the only Gospel where the word for Church (ekklesia) appears. The Church refers to the gathering of Christians at liturgy, but also the local community or the universal community of believers. Matthew 16:18 and 18:17 CCC 752
Right Instruction Matthew’s Gospel is catechetical, an instruction manual for new converts and faithful disciples alike. It teaches righteousness, prayer, and conversion.
Old Testament/New Testament “All this took place to fulfill what the Lord had said through the prophet.” 1:22-23; 2:5-6, 15, 18-18, 23 3:3-4; 4-14-16; 5:17; 8:17; 12:17-21 13:14-15, 35; 21:4-5, 16, 42 Matthew shows that the Scriptures attest the identity & mission of Jesus, that in Jesus, God’s plan of salvation is fulfilled. Not just the Prophets but all of Scripture is fulfilled in Him.
Fulfillment 3:15, The first words of Jesus in Matt. 3:15 reveal his interest in fulfilling God’s will manifested in the Scriptures. 26:56, The fulfillment theme reaches a climax at Jesus’ arrest, where he says: “But all this has taken place, so that the scriptures of the prophets might be fulfilled.”