Presentation on theme: "Christianity. Christian belief is largely based on the New Testament, a collection of 27 books composed in the first century AD. These books provide an."— Presentation transcript:
Christian belief is largely based on the New Testament, a collection of 27 books composed in the first century AD. These books provide an account of the teachings of Jesus of Nazareth and his immediate disciples.
New Testament The Gospels: the first four books of the New Testament. They provide an account of the life of Jesus of Nazareth. The Book of Acts: Chronicles the early spread of Christianity and the establishment of the Christian church. The Epistles: Letters attributed to the various Apostles and directed to particular individuals or various churches. Prophecy: The Book of Revelation
Date of Composition: Circa 90 AD Earliest fragments of the text: early second century AD Nearly complete version of the text: middle to late second century
Language: Koine Greek (possible early Aramaic versions of portions of the text) Authorship: “the disciple whom Jesus loved,” traditionally regarded as John the Apostle, one of the original twelve disciples. Purpose: “These things are written that you may come to believe that Jesus is the Messiah, the Son of God, and through this belief, you may have life in his name.” John 20:31
Relation to Other Three Gospels The gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke present very similar narratives of the life of Jesus. They are called the “synoptic” gospels. Gospel of John presents different content and a different kind of narrative of the life of Jesus.
Five Major Themes in John Divinity of Jesus of Nazareth Incarnation: God assuming a human nature Miracles that confirm Jesus’ identity and divine mission Jesus’ bodily resurrection from the dead The redemption of the world through the death of Jesus The text articulates five major themes of Christianity.
Division of the Text The Prologue to the Gospel: 1:1-18 The Book of Signs: 1:19-chapter 12 The Book of Glory: 13-20 The Conclusion to the Gospel: 20 Epilogue: 21
“In the beginning was the Word and the Word was with God, and the Word was God....All things came to be through him.” John 1:1, 3 Jesus Christ is introduced as the Word of God who assumes a human nature in the historical person Jesus of Nazareth. The word “Word” is Logos (Greek), a widely used term in Greek philosophy, often translated “reason”. The logos is here depicted as a creative power existing with God before the creation of the universe. This is similar to “wisdom” in the Hebrew Scriptures.
(1) The Logos is distinct from God, but identified as divine. (2) The Logos is the source of the universe. “And the Word became flesh and made his dwelling among us, and we saw his glory, the glory as of the Father’s only Son, full of grace and truth.” John 1:14 “In the beginning was the Word and the Word was with God, and the Word was God....All things came to be through him.” John 1:1, 3 (3) The Logos takes on a human nature. Jesus Christ is the incarnation of the divine logos.
“No one has ever seen God. The only Son, God, who is at the Father’s side, has revealed him.” John 1:18 (4) The incarnate Word is the revealer of God. (5) The Word’s relationship to God is as a father to son. The prologue is traditionally viewed as providing support for some kind of plurality in the divine being. The Word is distinct from God as a father is distinct from his son, but the Word is fully divine. God the Father, God the Son – the beginnings of Trinitarian theology. “...the Word was with God, and the Word was God.”
Jesus and Salvation Just as the Logos is the source of the universe, the Son of God, Jesus, is the source of redemption for the world. “To those who did accept him he gave power to become children of God, to those who believe in his name....From his fullness we have all received, grace in place of grace, because while the law was given by Moses, grace and truth came by Jesus Christ.” John 1:12-16-17
“For God so loved the world that he gave his only Son, so that everyone who believes in him might not perish but might have eternal life.” John 3:16 “For God did not send his Son into the world to condemn the world, but that the world might be saved through him.” John 3:17 Jesus is presented as the universal savior.
Miracles: Evidence of the Gospel Message Water turned into wine at Cana (John 2:1-12) Healing of a royal official’s son (John 4:46-54) Healing of the man at the pool at Bethesda (John 5:1-9) The Feeding of the Five Thousand (John 6:1-15) Healing of a man born blind (John 9:1-7) Resurrection of Lazarus from the dead (John 11:1-44)
John Chapters 1-3 Overview Calling of the first disciples (1:35-1:51) Miracle of turning water into wine at the marriage in Cana of Galilee (2:1-12) Cleansing of the temple in Jerusalem (2:13-25) Discussion with Jewish leader Nicodemus (3:1-21)
Jesus calls his first five disciples in Bethany across the Jordan. Jesus performs miracle at Cana of Galilee and then goes to Capernaum. Cleansing of the Temple in Jerusalem
Nicodemus, a religious leader among the Pharisees, comes to Jesus at night. Nicodemus confesses that he and others know that Jesus is a teacher who has come from God.
Nicodemus says that they believe this because of the signs (miracles) Jesus has performed.
Jesus’ Response “No one can see the kingdom of God without being born from above” (John 3:3).
Nicodemus is perplexed. Jesus clarifies that to be born from above means to be spiritually transformed. Jesus proclaims that he has come down from heaven and that whoever believes in him will be spiritually transformed.
“For God so loved the world that he gave his only Son, so that everyone who believes in him might not perish but might have eternal life.” John 3:16
John Chapters 4-10 Overview Conversation with the Samaritan woman (4:1-42) Second Miracle in Cana – Officer’s son healed (4:43-4:54) Healing of a sick man on the Sabbath (5:1-18) Miraculous feeding of 5,000 people. (6:1-15) Bread of life discourse (6:22-59) Light of the world discourse (8:12-30) Heals a man born blind. (9:1-41) Good shepherd discourse (10:1-18)
Galilee to Jerusalem (John 5) Capernaum (John 6) Galilee (John 7) Jerusalem (John 7) Bethany across the Jordan (John 10)
Hostility Towards Jesus from the Jewish Leaders CHAPTERS 4 - 11 Seven references to the Jews plotting and attempting to kill Jesus 5:18, 7:1, 7:19, 8:37, 8:40, 8:59, 10:31, 11:53 Three References to the Jews seeking to have Jesus arrested 7:32, 10:39, 11:57
Reasons for Jewish Hostility Towards Jesus Jesus violated the Sabbath (5:10-18, 7:21-23) Jesus claimed to be equal to God (5:18, 8:58- 59, 10:30-33) Jesus threatened the social order by potentially bringing the judgment of Rome on the Jews. (11:45-53)
John Chapters 11-17 Overview Raising of Lazarus from the dead (11:1-44) Jesus’ entry into Jerusalem (12:12-19) Jesus predicts his own death (12:23-33, 13:21- 30) Last supper discourses (14-16) The prayer of Jesus (17)