2Buddhism reforming of Hinduism 4th largest religion Asia contains the countries with the largest Buddhist population– East Asia and Southeast Asia #11– China the most followers #11
3The Middle Path or Noble Way Avoid extremes– either an overt pursuit of passionate worldly desire or extreme asceticismLive a moderate lifestyle characterized by quiet contemplation, thoughtful reflection, and disciplined self-control #2Reduces desire for material goods and other worldly attractionsEventually results in detachment from the world itself
4Siddhartha Gautama (563-483 BCE?) Born in NE India (Nepal).Raised in great luxury to be a king.At 29 he rejected his luxurious life to seek enlightenment and the source of suffering.Lived a strict, ascetic life for 6 yrs.Rejecting this extreme, sat in meditation, and found nirvana.Became “The Enlightened One,” at 35.
5The Life of GautamaSiddhartha Gautama, who became the Buddha, was born into the warrior caste . His father ruled over a small region of northern India.Siddhartha led a pampered life, but the Four Passing Sights ( an old man, a diseased man, a corpse, and a mendicant), caught his attention and disturbed him.Siddhartha discovered the Middle Way, the central teaching of Buddhism. This way rejects both extremes of sensual indulgence and asceticism.He and his followers formed the sangha, or Buddhist community.
6SIDDHARTHA GAUTAMA the founder of Buddhism. A reformer who tried to limit the Hindu priest’s power.Set out to find the cause of human sufferingBecame the Buddha
7SIDDHARTHA GAUTAMA Meditation While meditating under a Bodhi Tree - he achieved enlightenmentEnlightenmentthe state attained when Buddha realized the cause of suffering.understanding the true nature of things.Reach the state of enlightenment by meditation.Meditationessential part of the Buddhist practiceaim to move closer to enlightenment;Contemplation; focus your mindNow known as the Buddha- “Enlightened One”
8SIDDHARTHA GAUTAMANow known as the Buddha -“Enlightened One”
10Siddhartha GautamaAbout 534 B. C., Gautama left his family to take up the existence of a holy manIntense meditation and extreme asceticism did not enlighten him sufficientlyOne day he resolved to sit under a large bodhi tree until he understood the problem of sufferingFor 49 days he withstood various temptations and threats from demons and finally received enlightenmentThus Gautama became the Buddha– “the enlightened one”The Buddha by Odilon Redon
11The Mahabodhi Temple"Great Awakening Temple“Buddhist temple in Bodh Gaya, Indiathe location where Siddhartha Gautama, the Buddha, is said to have attained enlightenment.
14The essence of Buddhism The “middle way of wisdom and compassion.”2,500 year old tradition.The 3 Jewels of Buddhism:Buddha, the teacher.Dharma or Dhamma, the teachings.Sangha, the community.
15BASIC BELIEFS #2 All life is sacred. Reject extremes – The Middle Way Try to end sufferingSuffering is universal - All is sufferingKarmaReincarnationBrahman
16DharmaTaken together, the teachings of the Four Noble Truths and the Noble Eightfold Path constitute dharma, the basic doctrine shared by all Buddhists6th Century Buddha sitting on a lotus blossom which symbolizes purity and strength because it is able to thrive and grow even in murky water
17FOUR NOBLE TRUTHSFOUR NOBLE TRUTHS- The major principles of Buddhism that explain the nature of suffering and how to end it.Suffering is universal.The cause of suffering is desire (self-centered actions) #3.To end suffering is to end desire.If you give up desire, you achieve nirvana- the condition of wanting nothing,the goal of Buddhist. Reaching nirvana ends the cycle of reincarnation.To end desire- follow the Noble Eightfold Path.
18What is the fundamental cause of all suffering? Desire!Therefore, extinguish the self, don’t obsess about oneself.
19Nirvana Nirvana is the state of perfect spiritual independence Living this lifestyle will lead to personal salvation– escape from the cycle of incarnation and the attainment of nirvanaNirvana is the state of perfect spiritual independenceHighest HappinessThe Wheel of Dharma symbolizes samsara, the continuous cycle of birth, life, and death. One is liberated from this endless cycle of rebirth when nirvana is achieved.
20NOBLE EIGHTFOLD PATH-A practical guide to right conduct according to Buddhist teachings.“What you Should Do.”Understanding the cause of suffering.Compassion = fundamental teachingKindness and truthfulness.
22Eightfold PathNirvanaEscape from the cycle of rebirth.
23ASPECTS OF BUDDHISM#9Buddhism rejected the caste system so it found many followers among the Sudras and untouchables. #9
24Two main sects of Buddhism #4 Theravada Buddhism- Views Buddha as a teacher, not a God.The way of the elders.Living like a monk.SanghaOrthodox Buddhism-oldest, very strict interpretation (to preserve the original message of Buddha).Practiced in Southeast Asia. #11
26Two main sects of Buddhism #5 Mahayana Buddhism:Means Large or Great Vehicle.Can Worships Buddha and other enlightened one as Gods – limited impact on humansMore liberal Buddhism- Broader interpretation of Buddhism.Contains several schools of Buddhism:
27Mahayana Buddhism Contains several schools of Buddhism: Zen- closeness to nature, meditate on sayings, found in Japan and China.Tibetan- combination of traditional nature worship and Buddhist magic.DALAI LAMA-Traditional political and religious leader of Tibet.Highest priest of Tibetan Buddhism.
28Mahayana Buddhism The “Great Vehicle.” Founded in northern Asia (China, Japan).Buddhism “for the masses.”Seek guidance from Boddhisatvas, wise beings.Goal: Not just individual escape from the wheel, but the salvation of all humanity through self-sacrifice of those enlightened few.
29The celestial Buddha named Hotei or Pu-Tai is best known as the jolly Laughing Buddha. In China, he is known as the Loving or Friendly One. He is based on an eccentric Chinese Ch'an (Zen) monk who lived over 1,000 years ago and has become a significant part of Buddhist and Shinto culture. Because of this monk's benevolent nature, he came to be regarded as an incarnation of the bodhisattva who will be Maitreya (the Future Buddha). His large protruding stomach and jolly smile have given him the common designation "Laughing Buddha." Video
31Schools of Buddhism - Tibetan Vajrayana – the “Diamond Vehicle”Developed 7th century C.E.A mix of Theravada & Mahayana:Rituals (Tantra):Mantras (chanting)Mandalas & Thankas (symbolic images)Mudras (hand gestures)Bodhisattvas, including living Lamas (Dalai Lama)Meditation, monasticism, wisdom & compassionBardo Thodol -Tibetan Book of the Dead
32The Dalai LamaTenzin Gyatso, shortened from Jetsun Jamphel Ngawang Lobsang Yeshe Tenzin Gyatso – 14th Dalai Lama
33Choosing a Dalia LamaSenior Buddhist monks and Tibetan government officials begin a search for the reincarnation of the Dalai Lama after the death of the previous Lama. These searchers look for a boy who was born around the same time as the death of the previous Lama. According to the British Broadcasting Corp., the officials can decide where to look for the reincarnation in several ways: by way of a dream; by watching the direction the smoke drifts after the cremation of the previous Lama and then searching accordingly; or from some sign or vision from a holy lake in central Tibet.Once found, the officials present the boy with possessions of the previous Dalai Lama to determine whether the boy is familiar with them. If the child chooses the artifacts that belonged to he previous Lama, than that, along with the other signs, is believed to prove he is a reincarnation.
34Zen Buddhism Gardens. Archery. Tea ceremony. Calligraphy. The “Meditation School.”Seeks sudden enlightenment [satori] through meditation, arriving at emptiness [sunyata].Use of meditation masters [Roshi].Beauty, art, and aesthetics:Gardens.Archery.Tea ceremony.Calligraphy.
35Schools of Buddhism – Zen The “meditation” school:Lay and monasticSeeks sudden enlightenment (satori) through meditation, arriving at emptiness (sunyata) and the “Buddha Nature”Use of meditation masters (Roshi)Koans (paradoxical riddles to confound reason)Beauty, arts & aesthetics – gardens, archery, the tea ceremony, calligraphy, etc.
36What do all sects of Buddhism share? #6 All sects of Buddhism share a faith in Buddha and hope for nirvana.
37The Spread of BuddhismWithin two centuries after the Buddha died, Buddhism began to spread north and east into AsiaBy 13th century Buddhism had disappeared from India
38Elements of Hindu thought that became part of Buddhism: #7 KarmaReincarnationThe idea of salvation- as an end of the cycle of reincarnationBrahmanAll life is sacred
39Ways Hinduism and Buddhism are different: #8 Siddhartha Gautama is the founderrejects the caste systemseek nirvana (salvation) on their own without the help of priest or Godshas no founderbelieves in the caste systemSeek moksha (salvation) with help of priests and deities
40Cause of Decline in India #10 Much was absorbed by HinduismMuslim InvadersToday small population of Buddhists in India
42OTHER RELIGIONS Jainism Comes from Buddhism.Leader- MahaviraFocuses on Ahimsa- strictly adheres to nonviolence.Sikhism- is a religion that is a combination of Islam and Hinduism.Monotheistic- One god, but all else like Hinduism.This new religion emerged and is an example of cultural blending under the Mughals/Muslims
43Jain Religion from Ancient India Similar beliefs to Hinduism & BuddhismNonviolentVegetarianFor 3,000 years, the swastika meant life and good luck.