Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4: Mental Disorders and Suicide"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 4: Mental Disorders and Suicide What Are Mental Disorders?Kinds of Mental DisordersSuicideTreating Mental Disorders
2What Are Mental Disorders? Recognizing Mental Disorders MENTAL DISORDER: an illness that affects the mind and prevents a person from being productive, adjusting to life situations, or getting along with others.Characterized by abnormal:ThoughtsFeelingsor behaviors that make people uncomfortable with themselves or at odds with others.
3Disorders we will cover Anxiety DisordersAffective DisordersEating DisordersSTIGMA
4StatisticsAn estimated 26.2 percent of Americans ages 18 and older — about one in four adults — suffer from a diagnosable mental disorder in a given year = 57.7 million peopleAbout 20 percent of children are estimated to have mental disorders
5What Are Mental Disorders? Recognizing Mental Disorders Signs of a mental disorder usually occur frequently and over a long period of timeSigns are not always easy to identifyWhat is normal behavior in one culture may not be in anotherThere are more than 230 types of mental disorders which are recognized1 in 10 children in the US suffer from a mental disorder severe enough to cause some level of impairmentChildren are defined as those under the age of 18
6Kinds of Mental Disorders Anxiety Disorders ANXIETY is a feeling of fear that is not directed toward any definite threat.Generalized ANXIETY DISODERis a diagnosis given to peoplewhose worries have takenon a life of their own.-The topics of worryingare ordinary concerns:will I be able to pass the exam next week?,Is my boyfriend/girlfriend really interested in me?
7ANXIETY DISODERSis a condition in which real or imagined fears are difficult to control.Characterized by chronic fear…People with this disorder often arrange their lives to avoid situations that make them feel anxious or fearful.There are four main types of anxiety disorders:1. Phobic Disorder2. Panic Disorder3. Obsessive- Compulsive Disorder4. Post – Traumatic stress disorder
8Kinds of Mental Disorders Anxiety Disorders 1. Phobic DisorderPHOBIA: Anxiety related to a specific situation or object – heights, social, spiders, etc.How might fears affect normal living?2. Panic DisorderHas an unexplained feeling of terror – feelings accompanied by symptoms such as trembling, pounding heart, shortness of breath, dizziness.This fear gets in the way of a person’s ability to enjoy lifeCould lead to a person becoming housebound – agoraphobia – a fear of being alone away from help and avoidance of many different places and situations.
12COMMON PHOBIAS Heights Acrohobia Open or public places Agoraphobia PainStars/SpaceSmall SpacesDogsWaterBeing AloneDark/NightSnakesDeath and dyingStrangersAnimalsNeedlesAcrohobiaAgoraphobiaAlgophobiaAstrophobiaClaustrophobiaCynophobiaHydrophobiaMonophobiaNyctophobiaOphidophobiaThanatophobiaXenophobiaZoophobiaBelonephobia
14Anxiety Disorders 3. Obsessive- Compulsive Disorder OBSESSION: an idea or thought that takes over the mind and cannot be forgottenCOMPULSION: repeated, irresistible behaviorsRepetitive behaviors such asHand washing, counting, cleaning
15Types of Anxiety Disorders 4. Post – Traumatic stress disorder -a condition that may result after exposure to a terrifying event that threatened or caused physical harm.The disorder is common after a personal assault –rape, bombings, earthquakes, plane crashes, military combat.Symptoms: flashbacks, nightmares, emotional numbness, guilt, sleeplessness
16Lifetime Prevelance of Selected Psychological Disorders Among Americans Men (%)Women (%)Anxiety DisordersSimple Phobia6.715.7Social Phobia11.115.5Panic Disorder2.05.0GAD3.66.6OCD1.72.8PTSD10.4
17Kinds of Mental Disorders Affective Disorders A mental disorder in which a person’s moods or emotions become extreme and interfere with daily life.It is normal to feel depressed if you experience an important loss or failureThe feeling usually lifts after a couple of days or weeks and you can get on with your life
18Kinds of Mental Disorders Affective Disorders CLINICAL DEPRESSION: A mental disorder in which a person is overwhelmed by sad feelings for months and stops being able to carry out everyday activitiesCan be caused by stressorsNegative attitudes learned early in life may also contributeAnyone who shows signs of clinical depression should seek help from a parent, teacher, guidance counselor, physician, or mental health professional.Signs of Clinical DepressionChange in appetiteWith weight loss or gainChange in sleep patternsDifficulty sleeping or sleeping too muchChange in activity levelIncreased or slowed- downLoss of interest or pleasure in usual activitiesLoss of energy, feeling tired all the timeDifficulty thinking or concentratingRecurrent thought of death and suicide
19Kinds of Mental Disorders Affective Disorders Bi - PolarBipolar disorder is a serious mental illness. People who have it experience dramatic mood swings. They may go from overly energetic, "high" and/or irritable, to sad and hopeless, and then back again. They often have normal moods in between. The up feeling is called mania. The down feeling is depression.During a manic episodeOverly excitedRestlessRapid talking which is impossible to followDifficulty concentratingShow poor judgmentMay over spend on a shopping spreeMay drive recklesslyManic episodes alternate with periods of deep depressionMay behave normally between periods of extreme moods
20Schizophrenia is a severe, lifelong brain disorder Schizophrenia is a severe, lifelong brain disorder. People who have it may hear voices, see things that aren't there or believe that others are reading or controlling their minds. In men, symptoms usually start in the late teens and early 20s. They include hallucinations, or seeing things, and delusions such as hearing voices. For women, they start in the mid-20s to early 30s. Other symptoms include:Unusual thoughts or perceptionsDisorders of movementDifficulty speaking and expressing emotionProblems with attention, memory and organization
21Eating DisordersEating disorders are present when a person experiences severe disturbances in eating behavior, such as extreme reduction of food intake or extreme overeating, feelings of extreme distress, or concern about body weight or shape.Psychological pressures, possible genetic factors, and an obsession with body image and thinness can lead to an eating disorder.
22Eating Disorders The main types of eating disorders are : Anorexia nervosaBulimia nervosaBinge-eating disorder
23http://www.facetheissue.com/anorexia.html ANOREXIA NERVOSA A serious eating disorder in which a person refuses to eat enough food to maintain a minimum normal body weightSome people with anorexia lose weight by dieting and exercising excessively; others lose weight by misusing laxatives
24ANOREXIA NERVOSA Symptoms: Extreme loss of body weight Intense fear of gaining weight (even when underweight)Denial of the seriousness of low body weightInfrequent or absent menstrual periods (women)Avoiding mealsIntense or excessive exercise as another means of controlling weightSlowed heart and breathing ratesLowered body temperatureDry skinBrittle hair and nailsIn some cases, a lack of essential minerals may cause the heart to stop suddenly, leading to death
34Most models are thinner than 98% of American women
35Anorexia Nervosa Statistics An estimated .5% to 3.7% of females suffer from anorexia in their lifetimeAn estimated 5-15% of people with anorexia are males
36TREATING ANOREXIA Involves three components: restoring the person to a healthy weighttreating the psychological issues related to the eating disorderreducing or eliminating behaviors or thoughts that lead to disordered eating, and preventing relapse.
37Eating Disorders- Bulimia BULIMIA: A serious eating disorder in which alternates eating binges with purgingBulimia is MORE prevalent than AnorexiaDifficult to diagnosePublic behavior appears normalBulimic behavior occurs in privateMost Bulimics do not become dangerously underweight
38Eating Disorders- Bulimia Serious health effectsDehydration and kidney failurechronically inflamed and sore throatEnamel on teeth erodesVitamin and mineral deficienciesintestinal distress and irritation from laxative abuseSymptomsEating uncontrollablyUsing the bathroom frequently after mealsBloodshot eyesSore throatWeakness/ exhaustionVomiting bloodDepression/ Mood swingsHeartburn, bloating, indigestion, constipation
39Eating Disorders- Bulimia Enamel erosion of all teethIncreased occurrence of cavitiesBraces and restorations may not stay on teethTeeth become discoloredBleeding of the gumsPhysical changes in the mouth are often the 1st signs of an eating disorder
40Statistics on Eating Disorders The Desire to be Thin42% of 1st grade girls want to be thinner81% of 10 year olds are afraid of being fatThe avg. American woman is 5’4” and 140lbs.The avg. American model is 5’11” and 117 lbs.Dieting51% of 9 and 10 year old girls feel better about themselves if they are on a diet95% of all dieters regain the lost weight in 1-5 yearsAmericans spend over $40 billion on dieting and diet products every year
41Warning Signs to look for If you notice a family member or friend with the following symptoms consider talking to him or her about these issues with compassion:low self-esteemsevere dietingfrequent overeatinghoarding of fooddissatisfaction with appearance
42What to do about a friend that has an Eating Disorder If You Have An Eating DisorderTell someone you trustYou will need supportIt is an addictionIf You Do Not Get HelpDeath from malnutritionDangerous heart rhythmsDental ProblemsLiver failureHair lossWorried about a Friend?Express your concern in a loving and supportive wayTell someoneAvoid giving simple solutionsExpress your CONTINUED support
43Body dysmorphic disorder A type of chronic mental illness in which you can't stop thinking about a flaw with your appearance — a flaw either that is minor or that you imagine.When you have body dysmorphic disorder, you intensely obsess over your appearance and body image, often for many hours a day. You may seek out numerous cosmetic procedures to try to "fix" your perceived flaws but never are satisfied.
44For Additional Information National Eating Disorders Association (NEDA)American Dietetic Association (ADA)National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)Teen Health
45Suicide Myths and Facts People who talk about suicide rarely attempt it(False!)The tendency toward suicide is inherited and passed from generation to generation.(False)The suicidal person wants to die and feels that there is no turning back.
46There is no correlation between alcoholism and suicide All suicidal people are deeply depressed.(False)There is no correlation between alcoholism and suicide(FALSE!!!)Suicidal people are mentally ill.Once someone attempts suicide, that person will always entertain thoughts of suicide.(FALSE)
47Suicide Myths and Facts If you ask someone about their suicidal intentions, you will only encourage them to kill themselves.(False)Suicide is quite common among the lower class.Suicidal people rarely seek medical attention.Suicide is limited to young people.(False)Professional people do not kill themselves.When a depression lifts, there is no longer any danger of suicide.Suicide is a spontaneous activity that occurs without warning.Because it includes the Christmas season, December has a high suicide rate.
48Suicide The Warning Signs Same signs as depressionLoss of energyChange in sleep patternsWithdrawal from usual activitiesRadical changes in personalityOutgoing becomes withdrawnShy person becomes aggressiveSevere depressionActionsStops doing things he/ she enjoysGives away belongingsDecline in school performanceThings a person says“I don’t want to live anymore.”“They’ll be sorry when I’m gone.”Suffered a major traumaMoving to a new placeLosing boyfriend/ girlfriendFriend/ family member diesGoing through family divorceSigns can be deceptiveSomeone who has been severely depressed suddenly becomes happy and carefreeMay think person is better and over the depressionWhy might they really be happy?
49Suicide StatisticsIn 2006, U.S.A. suicides accounted for 33,000 deathsWho dies from suicide more often, men or women?More men than women die from suicideGender ratio is 4:1 (4 times more men than women die from suicide)73% of all suicides are white males80% of all firearm suicides are white malesWhat is the 3rd leading cause of death among people agedSuicide
50Suicide How to Help a Suicidal Person DOTrust your feelings if you believe the person is suicidalTake seriously a suicidal person’s threatsTell the suicidal person how concerned you are and how much you care about him/ herTalk calmly with the suicidal person – show interest and compassionFind professional help for the suicidal personStay with the suicidal person until help arrivesDO NOTDare the suicidal person to go ahead and make the attemptJudge the suicidal personAnalyze the suicidal person’s motivesArgue or try to convince the suicidal person of reasons why he/ she should not attempt suicideKeep the suicidal person’s self- destructive thoughts or actions a secretLeave a suicidal person alone
51Suicide Helping Yourself If you have been feeling depressed, remember that no matter how overwhelming the problems in life may seem, SUICIDE IS NEVER A SOLUTION.Knowing some specific symptoms of mental disorders can help a person determine if he or she should seek help- you feel trapped with no way out –you worry all of the time- your feelings affect your sleep, eating habits, school work, or relationships- Your family and friends express concern about your behavior – aggressive, violent, reckless- you are becoming involved with alcohol/drugs
52Treating Mental Disorders Most people wait too long to seek helpWhere to find helpOften, a parent, relative, teacher, school counselor, physician, or religious leader can tell you about mental health professionals` and services in your community.There are different type of mental health professionals that are capable of different treatment methods. They may include counseling as well as a drug treatment plan.Asking for help is not a sign of weakness – it is a sign of strength as it shows responsibility for one’s own wellness.
53Suicide Fact or MythPeople who really intend to commit suicide do not let anyone know about it. ________Suicide is proof of mental illness.____________People who really want to commit suicide will do it regardless of any attempts to prevent them.__________People who made a suicide attempt but survived did not really intend to die.__________________