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1 Chapter 4: Mental Disorders and Suicide What Are Mental Disorders? Kinds of Mental Disorders Suicide Treating Mental Disorders.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Chapter 4: Mental Disorders and Suicide What Are Mental Disorders? Kinds of Mental Disorders Suicide Treating Mental Disorders."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Chapter 4: Mental Disorders and Suicide What Are Mental Disorders? Kinds of Mental Disorders Suicide Treating Mental Disorders

2 2 What Are Mental Disorders? Recognizing Mental Disorders MENTAL DISORDER: an illness that affects the mind and prevents a person from being productive, adjusting to life situations, or getting along with others. Characterized by abnormal: Thoughts Feelings or behaviors that make people uncomfortable with themselves or at odds with others.

3 3 Disorders we will cover Anxiety Disorders Affective Disorders Eating Disorders STIGMA

4 4 Statistics An estimated 26.2 percent of Americans ages 18 and older — about one in four adults — suffer from a diagnosable mental disorder in a given year = 57.7 million people About 20 percent of children are estimated to have mental disorders

5 5 What Are Mental Disorders? Recognizing Mental Disorders Signs of a mental disorder usually occur frequently and over a long period of time Signs are not always easy to identify  What is normal behavior in one culture may not be in another There are more than 230 types of mental disorders which are recognized 1 in 10 children in the US suffer from a mental disorder severe enough to cause some level of impairment  Children are defined as those under the age of 18

6 6 Kinds of Mental Disorders Anxiety Disorders ANXIETY is a feeling of fear that is not directed toward any definite threat. Generalized ANXIETY DISODER is a diagnosis given to people whose worries have taken on a life of their own. -The topics of worrying are ordinary concerns: will I be able to pass the exam next week?, Is my boyfriend/girlfriend really interested in me?

7 7 ANXIETY DISODERS is a condition in which real or imagined fears are difficult to control. Characterized by chronic fear… People with this disorder often arrange their lives to avoid situations that make them feel anxious or fearful. There are four main types of anxiety disorders: 1. Phobic Disorder 2. Panic Disorder 3. Obsessive- Compulsive Disorder 4. Post – Traumatic stress disorder

8 8 Kinds of Mental Disorders Anxiety Disorders 1. Phobic Disorder  PHOBIA: Anxiety related to a specific situation or object – heights, social, spiders, etc.  How might fears affect normal living? 2. Panic Disorder  Has an unexplained feeling of terror – feelings accompanied by symptoms such as trembling, pounding heart, shortness of breath, dizziness.  This fear gets in the way of a person’s ability to enjoy life  Could lead to a person becoming housebound – agoraphobia – a fear of being alone away from help and avoidance of many different places and situations.

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12 12 COMMON PHOBIAS Acrohobia Agoraphobia Algophobia Astrophobia Claustrophobia Cynophobia Hydrophobia Monophobia Nyctophobia Ophidophobia Thanatophobia Xenophobia Zoophobia Belonephobia Heights Open or public places Pain Stars/Space Small Spaces Dogs Water Being Alone Dark/Night Snakes Death and dying Strangers Animals Needles

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14 14 Anxiety Disorders 3. Obsessive- Compulsive Disorder  OBSESSION: an idea or thought that takes over the mind and cannot be forgotten  COMPULSION: repeated, irresistible behaviors  Repetitive behaviors such as Hand washing, counting, cleaning

15 15 Types of Anxiety Disorders 4. Post – Traumatic stress disorder - a condition that may result after exposure to a terrifying event that threatened or caused physical harm. The disorder is common after a personal assault –rape, bombings, earthquakes, plane crashes, military combat. Symptoms: flashbacks, nightmares, emotional numbness, guilt, sleeplessness

16 16 Lifetime Prevelance of Selected Psychological Disorders Among Americans DisorderMen (%)Women (%) Anxiety Disorders Simple Phobia 6.715.7 Social Phobia11.115.5 Panic Disorder2.05.0 GAD3.66.6 OCD1.72.8 PTSD5.010.4

17 17 Kinds of Mental Disorders Affective Disorders AFFECTIVE DISORDERS: A mental disorder in which a person’s moods or emotions become extreme and interfere with daily life. It is normal to feel depressed if you experience an important loss or failure The feeling usually lifts after a couple of days or weeks and you can get on with your life

18 18 Kinds of Mental Disorders Affective Disorders CLINICAL DEPRESSION: A mental disorder in which a person is overwhelmed by sad feelings for months and stops being able to carry out everyday activities Can be caused by stressors Negative attitudes learned early in life may also contribute Anyone who shows signs of clinical depression should seek help from a parent, teacher, guidance counselor, physician, or mental health professional. Signs of Clinical Depression  Change in appetite With weight loss or gain  Change in sleep patterns Difficulty sleeping or sleeping too much  Change in activity level Increased or slowed- down  Loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities  Loss of energy, feeling tired all the time  Difficulty thinking or concentrating  Recurrent thought of death and suicide

19 19 Kinds of Mental Disorders Affective Disorders Bi - Polar  Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness. People who have it experience dramatic mood swings. They may go from overly energetic, "high" and/or irritable, to sad and hopeless, and then back again. They often have normal moods in between. The up feeling is called mania. The down feeling is depression.  During a manic episode Overly excited Restless Rapid talking which is impossible to follow Difficulty concentrating Show poor judgment May over spend on a shopping spree May drive recklessly  Manic episodes alternate with periods of deep depression  May behave normally between periods of extreme moods

20 20 Schizophrenia is a severe, lifelong brain disorder. People who have it may hear voices, see things that aren't there or believe that others are reading or controlling their minds. In men, symptoms usually start in the late teens and early 20s. They include hallucinations, or seeing things, and delusions such as hearing voices. For women, they start in the mid-20s to early 30s. Other symptoms include: Unusual thoughts or perceptions Disorders of movement Difficulty speaking and expressing emotion Problems with attention, memory and organization

21 21 Eating Disorders Eating disorders are present when a person experiences severe disturbances in eating behavior, such as extreme reduction of food intake or extreme overeating, feelings of extreme distress, or concern about body weight or shape. Psychological pressures, possible genetic factors, and an obsession with body image and thinness can lead to an eating disorder.

22 22 Eating Disorders The main types of eating disorders are : 1.Anorexia nervosa 2.Bulimia nervosa 3.Binge-eating disorder

23 23 ANOREXIA NERVOSA A serious eating disorder in which a person refuses to eat enough food to maintain a minimum normal body weight exia.html exia.html Some people with anorexia lose weight by dieting and exercising excessively; others lose weight by misusing laxatives

24 24 ANOREXIA NERVOSA Symptoms:  Extreme loss of body weight  Intense fear of gaining weight (even when underweight)  Denial of the seriousness of low body weight  Infrequent or absent menstrual periods (women)  Avoiding meals  Intense or excessive exercise as another means of controlling weight Slowed heart and breathing rates Lowered body temperature Dry skin Brittle hair and nails In some cases, a lack of essential minerals maycause the heart to stopsuddenly, leading todeath

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34 34 Most models are thinner than 98% of American women

35 35 Anorexia Nervosa Statistics An estimated.5% to 3.7% of females suffer from anorexia in their lifetime An estimated 5-15% of people with anorexia are males

36 36 TREATING ANOREXIA Involves three components: restoring the person to a healthy weight treating the psychological issues related to the eating disorder reducing or eliminating behaviors or thoughts that lead to disordered eating, and preventing relapse.

37 37 Eating Disorders- Bulimia BULIMIA: A serious eating disorder in which alternates eating binges with purging Bulimia is MORE prevalent than Anorexia Difficult to diagnose  Public behavior appears normal  Bulimic behavior occurs in private Most Bulimics do not become dangerously underweight

38 38 Eating Disorders- Bulimia Serious health effects  Dehydration and kidney failure  chronically inflamed and sore throat  Enamel on teeth erodes  Vitamin and mineral deficiencies  intestinal distress and irritation from laxative abuse Symptoms  Eating uncontrollably  Using the bathroom frequently after meals  Bloodshot eyes  Sore throat  Weakness/ exhaustion  Vomiting blood  Depression/ Mood swings  Heartburn, bloating, indigestion, constipation

39 39 Eating Disorders- Bulimia Enamel erosion of all teeth Increased occurrence of cavities Braces and restorations may not stay on teeth Teeth become discolored Bleeding of the gums Physical changes in the mouth are often the 1 st signs of an eating disorder

40 40 Statistics on Eating Disorders The Desire to be Thin  42% of 1 st grade girls want to be thinner  81% of 10 year olds are afraid of being fat  The avg. American woman is 5’4” and 140lbs.  The avg. American model is 5’11” and 117 lbs. Dieting  51% of 9 and 10 year old girls feel better about themselves if they are on a diet  95% of all dieters regain the lost weight in 1-5 years  Americans spend over $40 billion on dieting and diet products every year

41 41 Warning Signs to look for If you notice a family member or friend with the following symptoms consider talking to him or her about these issues with compassion: low self-esteem severe dieting frequent overeating hoarding of food dissatisfaction with appearance

42 42 What to do about a friend that has an Eating Disorder If You Have An Eating Disorder  Tell someone you trust  You will need support  It is an addiction If You Do Not Get Help  Death from malnutrition  Dangerous heart rhythms  Dental Problems  Liver failure  Hair loss Worried about a Friend?  Express your concern in a loving and supportive way  Tell someone  Avoid giving simple solutions  Express your CONTINUED support

43 43 Body dysmorphic disorder A type of chronic mental illness in which you can't stop thinking about a flaw with your appearance — a flaw either that is minor or that you imagine. When you have body dysmorphic disorder, you intensely obsess over your appearance and body image, often for many hours a day. You may seek out numerous cosmetic procedures to try to "fix" your perceived flaws but never are satisfied.

44 44 For Additional Information National Eating Disorders Association (NEDA)  American Dietetic Association (ADA)  National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)  Teen Health 

45 45 Suicide Myths and Facts People who talk about suicide rarely attempt it (False!) The tendency toward suicide is inherited and passed from generation to generation. (False) The suicidal person wants to die and feels that there is no turning back. (False)

46 46 All suicidal people are deeply depressed. (False) There is no correlation between alcoholism and suicide (FALSE!!!) Suicidal people are mentally ill. (FALSE!!!)  Once someone attempts suicide, that person will always entertain thoughts of suicide.  (FALSE)

47 47 Suicide Myths and Facts If you ask someone about their suicidal intentions, you will only encourage them to kill themselves. (False) Suicide is quite common among the lower class. (False) Suicidal people rarely seek medical attention. (False)  Suicide is limited to young people.  (False) Professional people do not kill themselves. (False) When a depression lifts, there is no longer any danger of suicide. (False)  Suicide is a spontaneous activity that occurs without warning.  (False)  Because it includes the Christmas season, December has a high suicide rate.  (False)

48 48 Suicide The Warning Signs Same signs as depression  Loss of energy  Change in sleep patterns  Withdrawal from usual activities Radical changes in personality  Outgoing becomes withdrawn  Shy person becomes aggressive Severe depression Actions  Stops doing things he/ she enjoys  Gives away belongings  Decline in school performance Things a person says  “I don’t want to live anymore.”  “They’ll be sorry when I’m gone.” Suffered a major trauma  Moving to a new place  Losing boyfriend/ girlfriend  Friend/ family member dies  Going through family divorce Signs can be deceptive  Someone who has been severely depressed suddenly becomes happy and carefree  May think person is better and over the depression  Why might they really be happy?

49 49 Suicide Statistics In 2006, U.S.A. suicides accounted for 33,000 deaths Who dies from suicide more often, men or women?  More men than women die from suicide Gender ratio is 4:1 (4 times more men than women die from suicide) 73% of all suicides are white males 80% of all firearm suicides are white males What is the 3 rd leading cause of death among people aged 15- 24  Suicide

50 50 Suicide How to Help a Suicidal Person DO  Trust your feelings if you believe the person is suicidal  Take seriously a suicidal person’s threats  Tell the suicidal person how concerned you are and how much you care about him/ her  Talk calmly with the suicidal person – show interest and compassion  Find professional help for the suicidal person  Stay with the suicidal person until help arrives DO NOT  Dare the suicidal person to go ahead and make the attempt  Judge the suicidal person  Analyze the suicidal person’s motives  Argue or try to convince the suicidal person of reasons why he/ she should not attempt suicide  Keep the suicidal person’s self- destructive thoughts or actions a secret  Leave a suicidal person alone

51 51 Suicide Helping Yourself If you have been feeling depressed, remember that no matter how overwhelming the problems in life may seem, SUICIDE IS NEVER A SOLUTION. Knowing some specific symptoms of mental disorders can help a person determine if he or she should seek help - you feel trapped with no way out –you worry all of the time - your feelings affect your sleep, eating habits, school work, or relationships - Your family and friends express concern about your behavior – aggressive, violent, reckless - you are becoming involved with alcohol/drugs

52 52 Treating Mental Disorders Most people wait too long to seek help Where to find help  Often, a parent, relative, teacher, school counselor, physician, or religious leader can tell you about mental health professionals` and services in your community.  There are different type of mental health professionals that are capable of different treatment methods. They may include counseling as well as a drug treatment plan.  Asking for help is not a sign of weakness – it is a sign of strength as it shows responsibility for one’s own wellness. the-us-statistics-and-prevention/index.shtml the-us-statistics-and-prevention/index.shtml

53 53 Suicide Fact or Myth People who really intend to commit suicide do not let anyone know about it. ________ Suicide is proof of mental illness.____________ People who really want to commit suicide will do it regardless of any attempts to prevent them.__________ People who made a suicide attempt but survived did not really intend to die.__________________ llStateSuicideRankings/2004%20Final%20Data.pdf llStateSuicideRankings/2004%20Final%20Data.pdf prevention/index.shtml prevention/index.shtml

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