4Hinduism Factoids Oldest major religion Third largest religion in the worldSprang from Indus ValleyAryans mixed with native peopleMajor religion of India – 83%
5Hinduism for Dummies Believe in 3 gods -Brahma: the creator Vishnu: the preserverShiva: the destroyerThree aspects/powers ofthe same being
6Hinduism for Dummies Two major divisions Vaishnavaism (Vishnu) Shivaism(Shiva)
7Hinduism for Dummies: Vedas Sacred texts/scripture – 4 of them(Prayers to Vishnu & Shiva)Hymns, incantations, and rituals fromancient India
8Hinduism for Dummies: Karma Sum of ones good & bad deeds“You reap what you sow” or“What goes around comes around”
9Hinduism for Dummies: Reincarnation SamsaraTransmigration of the soul through different bodies –cycle of birth, life, death, & rebirthKarma determines next lifeGoal: Achieve enlightenment….So be good for goodness sake!
10Hinduism for Dummies: Four Aims Dharma – Righteousness or performance ofreligious duties – Very important!Kama – Fulfillment of desiresArtha – Economic successMoksha – Freedom from Samsara – Ultimate goal!
11Holy Cow!Hindus have always had great respect for Mother Nature and its creaturesCow is especially significant because it symbolizes gentleness –nourishment & godliness
12Caste System Division of social ranks & tasks developed by Aryans Each group has different setof rules dealing with careers,marriage, diet, etc.
13Caste System cont. Brahmins – Priests Kshatriyas – Warriors Vaisya – MerchantsSudra – Unskilledworkers, peasants
14Caste System cont.Dalits --- UntouchablesDirty jobs – cleaning, etc.
15Buddhism Factoids Fourth largest religion in world Founded by Siddhartha GautamaTo become Buddha: Pass through 4 stages to reach EnlightenmentOpposed castesystemSpread along traderoutes
16Siddhartha Gautama Born in NE India (Nepal). Raised in great luxury to be a king.At 29 he rejected his luxurious life to seek enlightenment and the source of suffering.Lived a strict, ascetic life for 6 yrs.Rejecting this extreme, sat in meditation, and found nirvana.Became “The Enlightened One,” at 35.
17What is the fundamental cause of all suffering? Desire!Therefore, extinguish the self, don’t obsess about yourself.
18Buddhism for Dummies: Basic Beliefs Four Noble Truths1. Life means suffering.2. The origin of suffering isattachment.3. The cessation of suffering isattainable.4. The path to end suffering exists.(Self-improvement)-Eightfold Path
19Buddhism for Dummies: Eightfold Path Right ViewWisdomRight IntentionRight SpeechEthical ConductRight ActionRight LivelihoodRight EffortMental DevelopmentRight MindfulnessRight Concentration
20Nirvana Eightfold Path The union with the ultimate spiritual reality. Escape from the cycle of rebirth.