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Human Resources Sam Wooley Okie Kim Mandy Hansen Nick Birkby.

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Presentation on theme: "Human Resources Sam Wooley Okie Kim Mandy Hansen Nick Birkby."— Presentation transcript:

1 Human Resources Sam Wooley Okie Kim Mandy Hansen Nick Birkby

2 2.1 Human Resource Planning

3 Supply of Labor Total number of people who are willing and able to work Technological Change: Supply of labor is increasingly global, informal, and impersonal because of technology ▫Increases reach and availability of labor

4 Supply of Labor Demographic Change: ▫Example of a constraint:  In developed economies, organizations often faced with older workforce  Migration can provide opportunities and threats

5 Workforce Planning Changes in the external environment mean organizations will have to anticipate and manage changes They will: ▫Forecast the human resources it needs to achieve objectives ▫Identify, develop, and maintain skills its workforce needs Assess situation, look ahead to needs, address any shortfall or surplus

6 Recruitment Organization that identifies a shortfall in its workforce will need to start recruitment Methods: ▫Recruitment agencies  Keep records, save organizations from advertising  Can be expensive ▫Job centers  Some local gov’ts offer these to match employers and potential employees ▫Specialist publications  Enable an organization to target a particular profession ▫Personal contacts  Takes out cost element, likely based on professional and personal knowledge

7 Training & Appraisal Type of trainingDescriptionUsually undertaken Orientation:Introduces organization’s history, objectives, key staff, and the location of key facilities. It also explains how the business objectives are met and the expectations of the staff. In-house On-the-job training:Includes apprenticeships, job rotation, job enlargement, shadowing By supervisors, peers Off-the-job training:Includes lectures, discussions, case studies, role play, simulation By outside trainers

8 Changing Work Patterns External forces driving changes in employment patterns are largely beyond a government’s control Charles Handy – business writer who is largely credited with anticipating changes ▫Core workers – highly qualified professionals, implement objectives and know how to get things done, central to survival and growth ▫Contractual fringe – services such as advertising, catering, transport ▫Flexible labor force – part-time, temporary, seasonal work

9 2.2 Organizational structure & Communication

10 Formal Organization Authority is delegated from senior to middle to junior management Will feature delegation (passing authority to a subordinate) to those subordinate in a manger’s span of control (those the manager has official authority over) Person who delegates work remains accountable for outcome of that work

11 Levels of Hierarchy Tall organizations: -Standardized procedures -Formal working relationships -Long chain of command: line of authority & responsibility along which orders are passed Flat organizations: -have few levels of management -Employee participation encouraged -Mangers most likely have a more personal working relationship with subordinates

12 Organization Charts Diagrams that show official working relationships where levels of hierarchy, chain of command & span of control can be identified Tall Flat

13 Centralization & Decentralization Centralization: concentrating decision making in a particular location or group Ex: decisions in a school are predominantly made by 1 group Decentralization: when decision making is largely dispersed to outlying bits of organization Ex: a school allows different parts of organization to make decisions about uniform, activities, and how they’re taught

14 Barriers to Effective Communication  Language: clear vocab & grammar  Overload: cheap and fast to send s to a big group  filter out certain data  Noise: interferes w/ reception of message  Emotion: having poor relationship w/ someone  ignored or misinterpreted  Sensitivity to receiver: recognizing receiver’s needs & abilities (teacher w/teenagers vs. infants)  Specialist knowledge: using technical or including specialist knowledge  Inconsistent messages: conflicting messages from managers  Gap: greater the distance, greater the distortion of messages When organizations experience a major problem/crisis, poor communication is often the root cause

15 Different forms of Communication  Memos: brief & informal (used less b/c of s are commonly used)  Report: more detailed written form - Cover page, executive summary, intro, main body, conclusion, recommendations, bibliography  ICT (information and Communication technology) Affects… -cost & speed of communication -how organizations market products -how organizations recruit -hours people work

16 2.3 Leadership & Management

17 Differences between leadership and management ▫Management  A manager deals with complexity. They are responsible for planning and overseeing the work of a group, monitoring progress, and ensuring that the plan is put into effect. ▫Leadership  A Leader spends a great deal of time and energy building relationships in order to inspire people to follow voluntarily.

18 Believed that internal structure, controls, organization, and procedures kept an organization on track  Objectives should be set and performance indicators of: ▫Market standing ▫Innovation ▫Productivity ▫Physical and financial resources ▫Profitability ▫Manager’s performance and development ▫Worker’s performance and attitude ▫Public responsibility  Tasks for managers involved: ▫Manage by objectives ▫Take and encourage risk taking ▫Make strategic decisions ▫Build teams ▫Communicate and motivate ▫See the business as a whole ▫Relate the business to the total environment Peter Drucker

19 2.4 Motivation

20 What influences a person to work? ▫Intrinsic motivation  Occurs when someone gets satisfaction from an activity itself without threats or rewards from outside ▫Extrinsic motivation  Occurs when someone gets satisfaction from outside the individual such as rewards

21 Wanted to apply scientific methods to management to achieve results  Output would be maximized in the shortest possible time  More hands-on style in decision making Frederick Winslow Taylor

22 Abraham Maslow Proposed a hierarchy of human needs to explain motivation - The first four levels are the most important-an individual will suffer anxiety if they are not met. Once met they go way; or no longer cause anxiety - The remaining are growth needs. Once they are initially fulfilled they do not go away. The individual will strive to find new ways to satisfy these needs. -One of the key issues for management is that once a need is satisfied, providing more of the same will not motivate a worker.

23 Douglas McGregor  Theory X: manager assumes that employees are lazy and dislike work ▫Workers need to be closely supervised and provided with a stable and disciplined work environment. ▫Motivated by financial rewards that compensate them for the pain of working  Theory Y: manager will assume that employees will enjoy their work and will seek opportunities to take on greater responsibility ▫Workers will be trusted to get on with their work with little direction or supervision ▫Enjoy the mental and physical stimulation work provides

24 Frederick Herzberg Developed a two-factor theory of motivation based on hygiene needs and motivational needs Hygiene needs: ▫Factors that provide dissatisfaction at work if they are not attended to Hygiene factors: ▫The things that are necessary for you to get started, but they don’t drive you to succeed

25 Frederick Herzberg Herzberg’s “hygiene” needs are: ▫Company policy and administration ▫Relationship with supervisor ▫Work conditions ▫Salary ▫Company car ▫Status ▫Security ▫Relationship with subordinates ▫Personal life

26 Job Enrichment  Entails giving employees opportunities to make use of the different skills they have  Involves a range of tasks and challenges of varying difficulty as well as a complete unit of work so that an employee has a sense of achievement

27 Job Enlargement Increases the range of tasks a worker has to do ▫Could involve replacing an assembly line with modular work where an employee carries out a job from start to finish


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