Presentation on theme: "Lecture 4: Financial instruments and regulation"— Presentation transcript:
1Lecture 4: Financial instruments and regulation Mishkin chapter 2 – part CPage 28-32, 42-47
2Role in the financial system Indirect financeFinancial Intermediaries(e.g. bank)LenderBorrowerMoneyMoneyFinancial instrument A(e.g. saving account)Financial instrument B(e.g. student loans)RegulationFinancial instruments (e.g. bond, stock)Financial marketsMoneyDirect finance
3Financial instruments A financial instrument (also called security) is a claim on the issuer’s future income or assets.Financial assets vs. real assetsClassification:Money market instruments and capital market instrumentsBonds (debt instruments) and stocks (equity)
4Financial Instrument A: Financial Instrument B: BankBorrowerLenderMoneyFinancial Instrument A:e.g. Mortgage loanFinancial Instrument B:e.g. DepositFinancial instrument A is ‘issued’ by the borrower and is essentially a claim on borrower’s future income or asset. Financial instrument B is ‘issued’ by the Bank and is essentially a claim on Bank’s future income or asset. After financial instrument A is issued and sold to the Bank, it becomes a financial asset of the Bank. After financial instrument B is issued and sold to the lender, it becomes a financial asset of the lender, the liability of the Bank.back
5Financial asset vs. real asset Real assets: houses, equipments, human resources, etc.Financial assets: claims against real assets.Generally, borrowers obtain funds from lenders by selling newly issued claims ("IOU's") against their (borrower’s) real assets.IOUs are essentially financial assets.graph
6Money market instruments Money market instrument is shorter-term security generally with one year or less remaining to maturity.Treasury bill, commercial paper, CDs, etc.Many are held by institutions like banks, insurance companies and mutual funds, less often by individuals.
10BondsA bond is a debt security/instrument that promises to make payments periodically for a specified period of time.Bond price is closely (negatively) related to interest rate.Default risk: the possibility that the issuer (borrower) fail to pay back.
11StocksA share of stock is a claim on the net income and assets of the corporation.Holders of common stocks:earn from price appreciation and dividends.have ownership interest in the company proportional to shares owned:‘residual claimant’have voting rights, or ‘vote with feet’.Stock prices are volatile.
12Regulation in the financial system More regulation than in other industries.Why need regulation?information (efficiency concern)bankruptcy (stability concern)control of monetary policy (optimality concern)
13How would regulations help? Increase the information available to investors:SEC forces listed corporations to disclose informationreduce insider tradingEnsure the soundness of financial intermediaries, fight against bankruptcy, prevent financial panics:Restrictions on entry (chartering), reporting requirements, restrictions on assets and activities, deposit insurance, limits on competition, etc.
14Recap Financial instrument Money market instrument vs. capital market instrumentBonds vs. stocksWhy is regulation in financial system so important? How would regulation help?