Presentation on theme: "CANCER PREVENTION WHAT WE KNOW Megan Oden PA-C SOAR program co-lead."— Presentation transcript:
CANCER PREVENTION WHAT WE KNOW Megan Oden PA-C SOAR program co-lead
WHY IS CANCER PREVENTION SO IMPORTANT? Over half a million people die from cancer each year in the United States despite improvement in survival rates. Cancer is the number one cause of death in the US, outranking cardiovascular disease (heart disease, stroke). Aging is the single largest risk factor for developing cancer.
AGING AND CANCER All about the telomeres As our DNA ages, the telomeres shorten The shortening of the telomeres is also believed to be associated with cancer cell development.
CAN CANCER BE PREVENTED? Only 5-10% of cancers are hereditary It is estimated that 50% of cancer is preventable It is never too late to cut your risk!
PREVENTION VS SCREENING Both screening and prevention can reduce the likelihood of dying from cancer. Screening is used to detect cancer before there are symptoms. - colonoscopy, mammogram, PSA, pap smear, etc Prevention focuses on changes you can make to limit risk factors that promote cancer. These preventable risk factors account for TWO-THIRDS of all cancers in the US.
MODIFY YOUR RISK Tobacco Alcohol Sun exposure Physical activity Weight Diet Supplements
TOBACCO Tobacco is THE most preventable cause of cancer accounting for 21% of all cancer deaths worldwide The risk is not limited to smoking cigarettes Its not just about lung cancer -leukemia, cancers of the mouth, nose, sinuses, throat, esophagus, pancreas, liver, stomach, cervix, kidney, colon and bladder Benefits of quitting go beyond cancer and it is NEVER too late to quit
WATCH THE RAYS Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the US. - More cases than breast, prostate, lung and colon cancers combined Many skin cancers are curable (basal cell, squamous cell) but the incidence of melanoma continues to rise - estimated 9,710 deaths from melanoma in 2014 Radiation from the sun is the primary cause of all skin cancers Intense exposures and blistering burns may be more dangerous than cumulative sun exposure over many years.
HOW TO PROTECT YOURSELF Seek the shade, especially between 10am and 4pm No tanning beds- UV exposure from these is now classified as a carcinogen Avoid sun burns Use a broad spectrum sunscreen with UVA and UVB coverage - For prolonged outdoor activity minimum SPF of 30 - apply 30 minutes before going outside and every 2 hours See your physician annually for a skin check
STAY ACTIVE! 25% of US adults are almost entirely sedentary Decreased physical activity appears to increase your overall risk of developing cancer - Most compelling data shown in colon cancer and breast cancer Aside from smoking cessation, exercise is one of the most important changes you can make to decrease your cancer risk. How much do you need? - 2 ½ hours of moderate-intensity activity weekly - Muscle strengthening activity on 2 or more days a week
EXCESS WEIGHT Excess weight/obesity associated with increased risk of colorectal, breast, endometrial, kidney, and esophageal cancer Estimated to cause 20% of all cancers Risk can be reversible with weight loss - Bariatric surgery associated with significant reduction in the risk of dying from cancer- 60% Weight gain itself may increase your risk
DIET DILEMA Still a long way to go Results of studies are inconsistent and at times conflicting Break it down - Fat - Red meat - Fruits and vegetables - Supplements
DOES FAT INTAKE MATTER? No clear link between fat intake and colon or breast cancer risk May be an association with prostate cancer Verdict is still out
RED MEAT High intake of red meat is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer in both men and women - beef, pork, veal, lamb Shown to increase risk of cancer mortality Why? Maybe from overcooking meat - carcinogens may be formed when cooking meat at very high temps - prepare by baking, broiling or poaching Choose fish, poultry or beans over red meat
EAT YOUR VEGGIES Results have been very inconsistent The American Cancer Society recommends following a diet rich in plant based foods - 2 ½ cups and fruits/vegetables daily Emphasis is on WHOLE fruits and vegetables Variety is important Plant based diet? - diet centered on whole unrefined plants. Based on fruits, vegetables, tubers, whole grains, legume Excludes or minimizes meat, dairy, eggs refined flour, sugar and oil *
VITAMIN D Vitamin D may reduce the risk of colon cancer Vitamin D deficiency may be a risk factor for developing prostate cancer Get you Vitamin D level checked! Factors that effect your Vitamin D level - Geographic location and season - skin tone - age - body weight
CALCIUM Associated with a reduced of colorectal cancer BUT… May be associated with increased prostate cancer risk - higher calcium intake Should you take a supplement? - consider dietary sources: green leafy vegetables, sardines/salmon, dairy(milk, yogurt, cheese), non-dairy milks (almond, soy, coconut) - evaluate your risk for colon cancer
MEDITERRANEAN DIET High intake of fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes, whole grains, fish, olive oil Associated with a decreased risk of cancer. No single cancer type has been identified “Western” diet has been associated with a 30% increase in colon cancer risk - the “meat-sweet” diet - high in processed red meat, sugary desserts and drinks, high fat foods (dairy), and refined grains. Dietary patterns may play more of a role than individual components of diet
ANTIOXIDANTS Free radicals are chemicals that can damage cells which may lead to cancer Antioxidants block the activity of these free radicals Results of studies have been inconsistent May have other health benefits Antioxidant supplements are not recommended.
ALCOHOL Excess intake increases the risk of multiple cancers Studies have shown that moderate alcohol consumption increased the risk for breast cancer. Even light consumption ( 1 drink/day) may increase the risk of some cancers Moderate alcohol use has other health benefits
THE HYPE - Vit E -Vit C - Fiber -Sugar -Omega 3
KNOW YOUR BODY Know your skin Know your bowel/urinary habits Know your weight Women, know your breasts Know your DNA
THE BASICS Avoid tobacco Be physically active and STAY physically active Maintain a healthy weight Eat a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains and low in saturated fats Limit your alcohol Avoid excess sun exposure and SUN BURNS