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Vegetarian and Special Dietary Products Chapter 19.

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Presentation on theme: "Vegetarian and Special Dietary Products Chapter 19."— Presentation transcript:

1 Vegetarian and Special Dietary Products Chapter 19

2 Objectives Define the term vegetarian, and identify other forms of vegetarianism List the six food groups of the vegetarian diet Outline the various cereals and grains and the role of whole grains in diets Identify the different categories of pasta

3 Objectives (cont’d.) Distinguish the different forms of oats and barley and how they are used List the different types of rice Identify the different pulses Explain the process for making seitan Explain the uses of tempeh and tofu

4 Objectives (cont’d.) Identify the more popular varieties of edible nuts Identify dried fruits and drying methods List examples of fresh and dried mushrooms Identify the more popular varieties of olives produced globally

5 Vegetarian Foods Vegetarians must be mindful of their protein intake –Proteins are made of 20 amino acids, 10 of which are said to be essential –Plant proteins (incomplete proteins) are deficient in certain essential amino acids –Combining different plant proteins provide the complete protein required by humans

6 Vegetarian Foods (cont’d.) Types of vegetarian foods –Cereals and grains –Pulses –Nuts and seeds –Fruit and vegetables –Dairy products or soya products –Vegetable oils and fats

7 Cereal and Grains Cereals have been an essential part of the human diet since the beginning of agriculture In developing countries, cereals are the major source of food energy –Up to 90 percent of protein intake Seed is enclosed in outer shell, or hull

8 Cereal and Grains (cont’d.) Three main parts –Outer layer (the bran) High in vitamins and minerals; aids digestion –Endosperm (kernel) Largest part of the grain; composed of a starch –Germ Contains the seed of a new plant

9 Cereal and Grains (cont’d.) Store cereals away from heat and moisture 19.2 From left to right: wheat berry, cracked wheat, and flour © Randy Van Dam 2008

10 © Randy Van Dam 2008 19.6 Millet19.5 Hulled barley, pearled barley, and barley flakes 19.8 Long grain brown rice19.17 Quinoa

11 Cereal and Grains (cont’d.) Pasta and noodles –Made from flour of certain grains mixed with water or eggs 19.18 Assorted pasta shapes © Randy Van Dam 2008

12 © Randy Van Dam 2008 19.19 Assorted tubular pastas19.21 Assorted ribbon pasta 19.23 Assorted stuffed pasta19.26 Assorted cellophane noodles

13 Pulses Pulses are annual leguminous crops yielding from one to twelve grains or seeds within a pod –Category includes peas, chickpeas, beans, lentils, and garbanzo beans Dried pulses store very well over long periods of time –Store away from light and moisture

14 © Randy Van Dam 2008 19.31 Dry, split broad beans19.32 Yellow and green dry split peas 19.34 Black-eyed peas19.36 Assorted whole and split lentils

15 Nuts and Seeds Nuts have hard outer shells enclosing a kernel Seeds are found in the fruits of plants –Capable of producing a new plant Oils are extracted from nuts and seeds Purchase nuts in vacuum sealed glass jars, in cans, or sealed bags

16 Nuts and Seeds (cont’d.) Nuts will keep for two to nine months in the refrigerator © Randy Van Dam 2008 19.37 Different market forms of almonds 19.38 Brazil nuts19.43 Pecans

17 Nuts and Seeds (cont’d.) All pumpkin, melon, and squash seeds are edible protein sources © Randy Van Dam 2008 19.48 Melon, pumpkin, squash and sunflower seeds

18 Fruits and Vegetables Some dried fruits are subject to sugaring on the surface Many dehydrated fruits have sulfur added to prevent natural browning Types of drying methods –Sun dried, naturally dried, infused with sugar, and dried by frying

19 Fruits and Vegetables (cont’d.) Mushrooms are a fungus –38,000 varieties, not all of which are edible Purchase from reliable sources –Most mushrooms are grown in controlled environments Purchase specialty mushrooms that are firm, meaty, and dry to the touch

20 © Randy Van Dam 2008 19.51 Button mushrooms19.52 Cremini mushrooms19.53 Portabella mushrooms 19.54 Cepes, or porcini mushrooms 19.56 Morels19.57 Shiitake mushrooms

21 Fruits and Vegetables (cont’d.) Seaweed –Important food source in many Asian cultures –Laver (purple laver) is one of the most commonly consumed seaweeds Black and green olives: come from the same type of tree –Difference is ripeness at picking time

22 19.62 Seaweed and nori19.64 Alfonso (alphonso) olives © Randy Van Dam 2008 19.66 Kalamata olives 19.67a Barese olives 19.68 Moroccan sun-dried olives 19.69a Gordal olives with pits and stuffed

23 Soya Products Textured vegetable proteins are extracted from certain plants by a chemical process –Widely used as a meat substitute Nutritional quality of soya bean is superior to other pulses

24 Soya Products (cont’d.) Tofu is made by: –Grinding soybeans in water –Extracting the liquid –Adding a coagulant –Straining to create a solid block Four textures are available: soft, medium, firm, and extra-firm

25 Soya Products (cont’d.) Tempeh is a cake of soybeans –Made by removing hulls of cooked soya beans, mixing with starter, then fermenting –High in protein, vitamins, and dietary fiber Textured vegetable proteins –Varying manufacturing processes produce different compositions –Low in fat; rich in proteins

26 19.72 Fried tofu 19.73a Soft tofu © Randy Van Dam 2008 19.73b Firm tofu19.76 Assorted TVP products 19.75 Tempeh

27 Summary Vegetarians must combine different plant proteins to get complete proteins There are six basic types of vegetarian foods Legumes are also called pulses Various types of drying methods for fruit exist; sulfur may be added for color

28 Summary (cont’d.) Mushrooms are technically a fungus –Many specialty varieties are available Tofu and tempeh are made from soybeans –High in protein and low in fat There are many forms of textured vegetable proteins

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