At the end of the lecture students should be able to: 1. Define food & nutrition. 2. Classify food groups. OBJECTIVES
Define: i. Food ii. Nutrition iii. Nutrients iv. Diet v. Healthy diet DEFINITIONS
INTRODUCTION is Food is a substance that living beings eat to satite their hunger. Diet is the kinds of food that a person, animal, or community habitually eats. Dietics is “the practical application of the principles of nutrition”; It includes the planning of meals for well and sick. Dietics is “the practical application of the principles of nutrition”; It includes the planning of meals for well and sick. Community nutrition is “practical application of the Community nutrition is the “practical application of the nutritional knowledge to promote health and wellbeing of individuals, groups or community”.
1. Fulfills energy needs (macronutrients) 2. Provides sufficient amounts of essential nutrients (micronutrients) 3. Reduces risk of disease 4. Is safe to consume (low contaminants or potentially harmful added substances) What is Healthy Diet?
Nutrition is defined as “the science of food and its relationship to health”. Nutrition is defined as “the science of food and its relationship to health”. The science of human nutrition deals with all the effects on people, of any component, found in food. NUTRITION
The science of nutrition include: 1. The physiological and biochemical processes involved in nourishment—how substances in food provide energy or are converted into body tissues, 2. The diseases that result from insufficiency or excess of essential nutrients (malnutrition). 3. Nutrition is also about why people choose to eat the foods they do, even if they have been advised that doing so may be unhealthy. NUTRITION
CEREALS & GRAINS Cereals are grasses cultivated for the edible components of their grain; composed of the endosperm, germ, and bran.grassesgrainendosperm germbran Cereal grains are grown in greater quantities and provide more food energy worldwide than any other type of crop; they are therefore “staple crops”.“staple crops
TYPES OF GRAINS 1. Whole Grains refer to grains that have all of the parts of the grain seed, (bran, germ & endosperm). Examples: Brown bread & rice, maize, oat, barley, millet 1. "Refined Grain” is processed grain when some of the dietary fiber and other important nutrients are removed. Examples: Refined grains (white bread & rice, pasta, noodles)
TYPES OF GRAINS Whole grains are a rich source of carbohydrates, protein, fiber, fats & oils and a wide range of vitamins and minerals including folate, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin and iron. Whole grain However, when refined by the removal of the bran and germ, the remaining endosperm is mostly carbohydrate and lacks the majority of the other nutrients.brangermendosperm carbohydrate
VEGETABLES Vegetables comprise any plant part, other than fruit which is used as food. They include; i. Roots and tubers (potatoes, turnips, carrots) ii. Bulbs s(onions) iii. Stems (Celery) iv. Leaves (Lettuce and cabbage) v. Flowers (broccoli and cauliflower) vi. Peas and beans are legumes but when immature and green are treated as vegetables.
FRUITS In its strict botanical sense a ‘fruit’ is the fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant enclosing the seed. Fruit forms from the flower and contains the seeds of the plant. Some vegetables like tomatoes and pumpkin are the fruit of the plant, but they are used as vegetables.
FRUITS Fruit is a good source of vitamins, including vitamin C and folate, carotenoids as well as useful amount of potassium. It also provides carbohydrates, in particular natural sugars and fibre, especially in the edible skins. The sugar that makes them sweet provides energy.
MILK AND MILK PRODUCTS Milk, yoghurt and firm cheeses are the three important foods in this group. The foods in this group are an excellent source of calcium. Milk carries B group vitamins, particularly riboflavin & vitamin B12, and the fat soluble vitamins A & D.
MILK AND MILK PRODUCTS These foods are also a good source of fats and protein, but is low in iron. Lactose is the principal sugar in milk, and milk is the only source of lactose in nature. The lactose enhances the absorption of calcium and phosphorus from the intestine.
MEAT, FISH, POULTRY, EGGS NUTS & LEGUMES There is a wide variety of foods in this group. It consists of all kinds of meat, poultry, fish, eggs, nuts and nut pastes such as peanut butter, legumes, and some seeds such as sunflower and sesame seeds. The foods in this group are a good source of protein, iron, niacin and vitamin B12.
NUTS AND SEEDS Nuts and seeds have been valued for their oils as much as for a food in itself; their high content of energy, protein, vitamins, and minerals makes them a very nutritious food. The energy content of nuts is mostly due to their high fat content. Common types of nuts include almonds, walnuts, Brazil nuts and hazelnuts. Sunflower, sesame, and pumpkin are the most common seeds eaten as foods.
Some common "nuts", including walnuts, hazelnuts, Brazil nuts, pecans, and almonds.walnutshazelnuts Brazil nutspecansalmonds
LEGUMES Legumes are the edible seed from the Leguminosae family and include dried peas, beans, lentils, pulses and chick peas. Of all foods, legumes most adequately meet the recommended dietary guidelines for healthful eating. They are high in carbohydrate and dietary fibre, mostly low in fat, supply adequate protein while being a good source of vitamins and minerals.
FATS, OILS AND SWEETS Fats, oils and sweets give us calories. Fats, oils and sweets add flavor and variety to our diets. Most of these foods do not contain many vitamins or minerals. So they are called "empty calorie" foods.