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Hallucinogens and Dissociative Agents Naturally Growing in the United States Psychoactive Botanical Products Workshop September 9, 2003 John H. Halpern,

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Presentation on theme: "Hallucinogens and Dissociative Agents Naturally Growing in the United States Psychoactive Botanical Products Workshop September 9, 2003 John H. Halpern,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Hallucinogens and Dissociative Agents Naturally Growing in the United States Psychoactive Botanical Products Workshop September 9, 2003 John H. Halpern, M.D. Associate Director, Substance Abuse Research Biological Psychiatry Laboratory Alcohol and Drug Abuse Research Center McLean Hospital, Belmont, MA Harvard Medical SchoolNIDA K23-DA00494

2 From the forest to the front lawn? This lecture reviews basic information on most of the hallucinogen and dissociative intoxicants growing throughout the U.S. Psychoactive composition, geographic distribution, and brief overview on preparation and/or intoxication will be reviewed

3 Ephedra – Caffeine-like Stimulant

4 The Ephedra Equation Most “dietary supplements” marketed as psychoactive intoxicants contain ephedrine and/or caffeine from a variety of botanical sources. In China, Ma Huang is used directly as a tea or compounded with other herbs. Historically in the U.S., it was used as a stimulant tea: Mormon Tea, Brigham Tea, and other names. Contains: ephedrine, pseudo-ephedrine, nor- ephedrine, methyl-ephedrine, tannins, saponin, and flavone

5 Ephedra grows in the deserts of the Southwest

6 Ephedra of the US E. trifurca, E. viridis, E. torreyana, E. nevadensis and E. californica 100 gm dried ephedra could contain anywhere from 0 to 2.6 gm of ephedrine Herbalists do offer pure extract preparations

7 Psilcybe Mushrooms – Potent Hallucinogen

8 Psilocybe Mushrooms Psilocybin: 4-phosphoryloxy-N,N-DMT Psilocin: 4-hydroxy-N,N-DMT Psilocybe cubensis typically contains 1.6 mg psilocybin per gram of dried mushroom 40 mcg/kg intoxicates 3 to 4 hour duration

9 Psilocybe Mushrooms Small brown mushrooms that stain blue to the touch Illicit cultivation but also foraged from temperate climates

10 Psilocybe Mushrooms: Religious Use Religious use continues in Oaxaca, Mexico

11 Psilocybin content

12 Dimethyltryptamine – Potent Hallucinogen

13 DMT N,N-Dimethyltryptamine 10 to 20 mg smoked : 15 minute intoxication Approximately 100mg oral ingestion in presence of an MAOI: 3-4 hour intoxication Many sources Religious use of ayahuasca continues in Brazil; indigenous and “modern” religions: Santo Daime and Uniao do Vegetal. Both seek permission to use in the U.S.

14 DMT…it’s as common as crabgrass… “Canary” grass; Phalaris aquatica, P. arundinacea, P. canariensis, P. tuberosa Desmanthus illinoensis; Prairie Bundleflower Many other sources; mostly S. America.

15 DMT content Alkaloids reported as mg/100g raw dried plant +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ P. tuberosa: DMT 100 mg+; 5-Me-DMT 22 mg+; 5-OH-DMT 5 mg P. arundinacea DMT 60+ mg Desmanthus illinoesis (root bark) DMT 340 mg Psychotria viridis: DMT 200 mg

16 Phalaris spp.

17 Desmanthus illinoesis

18 Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors Sedative-hypnotic properties and possibly hallucinogenic/dissociative properties Sources: Peganum harmala, Passiflora spp., USED TO MAKE DMT ORALLY ACTIVE

19 Peganum harmala

20 Commonly called Syrian rue Contains reversible MAOIs that may also be psychoactive (2 to 4% beta-carboline content). Ayahuasca’s MAOI source only has 0.5% beta-carboline content. Passiflora: approx. 1%

21 Passiflora incarnata Passion flower; fruit used in drinks; some herbal preparations as a “sedative”

22 Peyote – Potent Hallucinogen Contains mescaline Lophophoria williamsii

23 Natural Range of Peyote

24 Harvesting Peyote

25 Peyote Lophophoria williamsii contains 1.5% mescaline (  - 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine ) 3mg/kg potent intoxication Up to 8 to 10 hour duration Continued religious use in North America Other cacti used in South America and also…

26 Trichocereus spp. Most popular source of non-sacramental mescaline in the U.S. isn’t peyote… These ornamental cacti can be found almost everywhere

27 The Peyote Ceremony Stewart OC. Peyote Religion. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1987. Aberle DF. The Peyote Religion Among the Navaho. Chicago, IL: Aldine Publishing Co., 1966.

28 The Peyote Ceremony Reasons for a meeting The Road Chief and… Tobacco prayers Ingestion of Peyote Power of song Water ceremony The morning after

29 LSD?

30 Lysergic Acid Amide Ipomoea spp. (esp. I. purpurea) Morning Glory 5-10 grams of seeds Aztec: Oliliuqui Argyria nervosa Hawaiian Baby Woodrose 4-8 seeds ingested

31 Salvia divinorum potent hallucinogen Many other Salvia spp. may also contain psychoactive diterpenes. “Salvinorin A” Related to Sage plants/Mint family Does not grow in the United States naturally, but can readily be cultivated. Mexican origin First reported in 1962 but popularity increased via Internet…

32 Salvia divinorum

33 Coleus?

34 Datura – Potent Dissociative

35 Datura stramonium

36 Datura Leaves typically cut and smoked Contains atropine, scopalomine, and… Ancient ceremonial use in the U.S. Occasional report of death by ingestion of root Many other sources for atropine and scopalomine…mandrake, henbane…

37 Amanita muscaria Found throughout the U.S. Muscimol is the primary psychoactive alkaloid Dissociative

38 Bufo Frogs… Contains bufontinin but intoxication primarily from 5-Meo-DMT The toad is NOT licked but glands are milked for poison

39 Botanical intoxicants…future mayhem? None of these plants are addictive, other than cultivation of the opium poppy in the U.S., which is not common. Illicit cultivation of Cannabis spp., of course, continues. Eradication of the illicit drug market of hallucinogens may drive the “resourceful” to these botanicals more than today. It is not feasible to eradicate these botanicals from U.S. territory The Internet will drive an ever wider dissemination of information on these botanicals to those seeking this information

40 Further information or for reprints: E-mail: Office: 1 (617) 855-3703

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