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Psychedelics cause perceptual distortions that include hallucinations, illusions, and disorders of thinking such as paranoia.

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Presentation on theme: "Psychedelics cause perceptual distortions that include hallucinations, illusions, and disorders of thinking such as paranoia."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Psychedelics cause perceptual distortions that include hallucinations, illusions, and disorders of thinking such as paranoia.

3 Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD or Acid) Psilocybin Mushrooms (Shrooms’) Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) Phencyclidine (PCP) Ketamine (Special K) Mescaline

4 Many psychedelics have chemical structures that are very similar to human neurotransmitters…. Norepinephrine Mescaline  Almost all hallucinogenics contain a nitrogen in their structure, and are therefore considered alkaloids  Psychedelic compounds have a high affinity for serotonin 5-HT receptors, but the different compounds have affinity for specific receptor subtypes.

5 Psychedelic drugs are among the oldest used substances by people…. Throughout history, many cultures have accepted the use of psychedelics for various reasons, such as religious experiences, attempting to be closer to nature, and also recreational use. In the 1960s, the use of psychedelics was widespread. Psychedelics quickly became associated with various political movements and rebellion. Many problems erupted between people of different generations because of varying perspectives.

6 Acid is the most potent hallucinogenic drug and produces significant psychedelic effects with a total dose of as little as 25 to 50 µg. For instance, acid is 3000 times more potent than mescaline. Threshold effects using this drug may be observed with a dose as little as 20 µg. Acid is typically sold as a liquid or on blotter paper (postage stamp size with little squares drawn in).

7 LSD continued……… LSD is considered to be non-addictive. Signs of LSD ingestion include pupillary dilation, increased blood pressure and pulse,flushing, salivation, lacrimation, and hyperreflexia. Visual effects are prominent. Colors seem more intense, and shapes may appear altered. The subject may focus attention on unusual items such as the pattern of hairs on the back of the head. Sometimes acid may cause a “bad trip,” which consists of severe anxiety. Subjects experiencing this are not pleasant to be around. During this time, subjects do things that they would not normally do, such as jumping out of a window. “Flashbacks” are a psychological phenomenon in which a subject experiences the subjective effects of acid long after the drug has worn off. This can happen days, weeks, months, or even years after the drug has worn off. Imagine taking a medicinal chemistry test and having a flashback during the test.

8 Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas Clip x4 x4

9 Claims about the potential of acid enhancing psychotherapy and for treating addictions and other mental disorders have not been supported by controlled treatment outcome studies. Therefore, acid is illegal and is classified as a Schedule I drug, meaning that it has no known medical use and has the potential to be highly abused by the public.

10 Structure of LSD

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12 Psilocybin mushrooms are fungi that contain the psychoactive substances psilocybin and psilocin. Other terms for psilocybin mushrooms are “magic mushrooms” or just “shrooms” Shrooms are typically dried out completely before they are consumed orally.

13 Hallucinogenic mushrooms have a long history among Mesoamericans, they were used for divination, religious communion, and healing. Shrooms were known by the Aztecs literally as “God’s mushrooms” or “flesh of the God’s.” The Spanish believed that these mushrooms allowed the Aztec’s to communicate with devils.

14 Many people believe that the hallucinogenic effects of shrooms are due to psilocybin’s poisonous nature. This is a misconception. The Center for Disease Control rated psilocybin less toxic than asprin. A typical dose of mushrooms is 1-2 grams or dried mushrooms. This corresponds to mg of psilocybin. Effects caused by shrooms begin about 30 min. after consumption and last nearly 5 hours. During this period, laughing is somewhat uncontrollable and visual hallucinations caused by organic objects are typical. Psilocybin acts by affinity to serotonin 5-HT receptors.

15 There have been requests for medical investigation for the use of synthetic and mushrooms derived psilocybin for the development of various mental conditions, including chronic cluster headaches, following reports of numerous anecdotal reports. There are also several reports of psilocybin mushrooms sending OCD and OCD-related clinical depression into complete remission immediately and for months at a time.

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17 Works Cited Brunton, Lawrence. Goodman & Gilman’s “The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics.”


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