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1 Hallucinogens (Psychedelics). 2 Hallucinogens substances that alter sensory processing in the brain, causing perceptual disturbances, changes in thought.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Hallucinogens (Psychedelics). 2 Hallucinogens substances that alter sensory processing in the brain, causing perceptual disturbances, changes in thought."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Hallucinogens (Psychedelics)

2 2 Hallucinogens substances that alter sensory processing in the brain, causing perceptual disturbances, changes in thought processing, and depersonalization substances that alter sensory processing in the brain, causing perceptual disturbances, changes in thought processing, and depersonalization

3 3 Modern day history of hallucinogens The Native American Church The Native American Church – The American Indian Religious Freedom Act of 1978 Timothy Leary and the League of Spiritual Discovery Timothy Leary and the League of Spiritual Discovery – The Psychedelic Experience

4 4 The nature of hallucinogens Many drugs can exert hallucinogenic effects Many drugs can exert hallucinogenic effects – LSD types – Phenylethylamines – Anticholinergic agents

5 5 Nature of hallucinogens PsychedelicPsychotogenicPsychotomimetic

6 6 Sensory and psychological effects of hallucinogens Altered senses Altered senses – synesthesia Loss of control Loss of control – flashbacks Self-reflection Self-reflection – “make conscious the unconscious” Loss of identity and cosmic merging Loss of identity and cosmic merging – “mystical-spiritual aspect of the drug experience”

7 7 Traditional hallucinogens: LSD types agents LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide), mescaline, psilocybin, dimethyltryptamine (DMT), and myristicin LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide), mescaline, psilocybin, dimethyltryptamine (DMT), and myristicin These drugs cause predominantly psychedelic effects These drugs cause predominantly psychedelic effects

8 8 Of high school seniors sampled: 11.3% had used in % had used in % has used in % has used in % had used in % had used in 1999

9 9 Traditional hallucinogens: LSD types agents Physical properties of LSD Physical properties of LSD – In pure form - colorless, odorless, tasteless – Street names - acid, blotter acid, microdot, white lightning

10 10 Traditional Hallucinogens Physiological effects Physiological effects – Massive increase in neural activity – Activates sympathetic nervous system (rise in body temp., heart rate, and blood pressure) – Parasympathetic nervous system (increase in salivation and nausea)

11 11 Traditional hallucinogens: LSD types agents About half of the substance is cleared from the body within 3 hours, and more than 90% is excreted within 24 hours About half of the substance is cleared from the body within 3 hours, and more than 90% is excreted within 24 hours Effects of this hallucinogen can last 2-12 hours Effects of this hallucinogen can last 2-12 hours Tolerance to the effects of LSD develops very quickly Tolerance to the effects of LSD develops very quickly

12 12 Other LSD types agents Mescaline (Peyote) Mescaline (Peyote) – Mescaline is the most active drug in peyote; it induces intensified perception of colors and euphoria – Effects include dilation of the pupils, increase in body temperature, anxiety, visual hallucinations, and alteration of body image, vomiting, muscular relaxation; in very high doses may cause death – Street samples are rarely authentic

13 13 Other LSD types agents Psilocybin - its principal source is the Psilocybe mexicana mushroom Psilocybin - its principal source is the Psilocybe mexicana mushroom – It is not very common of the street – Hallucinogenic effects produced are quite similar to LSD – Cross tolerance among psilocybin, LSD, mescaline – Stimulates the autonomic nervous system, dilates the pupils, increases the body temperature

14 14 Other LSD types agents Dimethyltryptamine (DMT) Dimethyltryptamine (DMT) – A short-acting hallucinogen – Found in seeds of certain leguminous trees and prepared synthetically – It is inhaled and similar action as psilocybin

15 15 Other Hallucinogenic (LSD type) Nutmeg Nutmeg – Myristica oil responsible for physical effects – High doses can be quite intoxicating – Can also cause unpleasant trips

16 16 Phenylethylamine hallucinogens The phenylethylamine drugs are chemically related to amphetamines. The phenylethylamine drugs are chemically related to amphetamines. They have varying degrees of hallucinogenic and CNS stimulant effects They have varying degrees of hallucinogenic and CNS stimulant effects Phenylethylamines that predominantly: Phenylethylamines that predominantly: – Release serotonin are dominated by their hallucinogenic action – Release dopamine are dominated by their stimulant effects

17 17 Phenylethylamine hallucinogens Dimthoxymethylamphetamine (DOM or STP) Dimthoxymethylamphetamine (DOM or STP) “Designer” amphetamines “Designer” amphetamines 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)

18 18 Anticholinergic hallucinogens The anticholinergic hallucinogens include naturally occurring alkaloid substances that are present in plants and herbs The anticholinergic hallucinogens include naturally occurring alkaloid substances that are present in plants and herbs The potato family of plants contains most of these mind-altering drugs The potato family of plants contains most of these mind-altering drugs 3 potent anticholingergic compounds 3 potent anticholingergic compounds – Scopolamine – Hyoscyamine – Atropine

19 19 Anticholinergic hallucinogens Atropa Belladonna: The Deadly Nightshade Atropa Belladonna: The Deadly Nightshade Mandragora Officinarum: The Mandrake Mandragora Officinarum: The Mandrake Hyoscyamus Niger: Henbane Hyoscyamus Niger: Henbane Datura Stramonium: Jimsonweed Datura Stramonium: Jimsonweed

20 20 Other hallucinogens Phencyclidine (PCP) Phencyclidine (PCP) – It was developed as an intravenous anesthetic, but found to have serious adverse side effects – It differs from the other traditional hallucinogens  It is a general anesthetic in high doses  It causes incredible strength and extreme violent behavior  Management of the severe psychological reactions requires drug therapy

21 21 Other hallucinogens Phencyclidine (PCP) physiological effects Phencyclidine (PCP) physiological effects – Hallucinogenic effects, stimulation, depression, anesthesia, analgesia – Large doses can cause coma, convulsions, and death PCP psychological effects PCP psychological effects – Feelings of strength, power, invulnerability; perceptual distortions, paranoia, violence, psychoses,

22 22 Other hallucinogens: inhalants The most commonly abused inhalants are volatile substances that can cause hallucinations, intoxication, and euphoria. The most commonly abused inhalants are volatile substances that can cause hallucinations, intoxication, and euphoria. – Volatile solvents – Anesthetics – Nitrites Mild doses - mild stimulations, lack of motor control, dizziness, hallucinations Mild doses - mild stimulations, lack of motor control, dizziness, hallucinations High doses - violent behavior, heart arrhythmia, unconsciousness, death22 High doses - violent behavior, heart arrhythmia, unconsciousness, death22

23 23 From the forest to the front lawn? This lecture reviews basic information on most of the hallucinogen and dissociative intoxicants growing throughout the U.S. This lecture reviews basic information on most of the hallucinogen and dissociative intoxicants growing throughout the U.S. Psychoactive composition, geographic distribution, and brief overview on preparation and/or intoxication will be reviewed Psychoactive composition, geographic distribution, and brief overview on preparation and/or intoxication will be reviewed

24 24 Ephedra – Caffeine-like Stimulant

25 25 The Ephedra Equation Most “dietary supplements” marketed as psychoactive intoxicants contain ephedrine and/or caffeine from a variety of botanical sources. Most “dietary supplements” marketed as psychoactive intoxicants contain ephedrine and/or caffeine from a variety of botanical sources. In China, Ma Huang is used directly as a tea or compounded with other herbs. In China, Ma Huang is used directly as a tea or compounded with other herbs. Historically in the U.S., it was used as a stimulant tea: Mormon Tea, Brigham Tea, and other names. Historically in the U.S., it was used as a stimulant tea: Mormon Tea, Brigham Tea, and other names. Contains: ephedrine, pseudo-ephedrine, nor- ephedrine, methyl-ephedrine, tannins, saponin, and flavone Contains: ephedrine, pseudo-ephedrine, nor- ephedrine, methyl-ephedrine, tannins, saponin, and flavone

26 26 Ephedra grows in the deserts of the Southwest

27 27 Ephedra of the US E. trifurca, E. viridis, E. torreyana, E. nevadensis and E. californica 100 gm dried ephedra could contain anywhere from 0 to 2.6 gm of ephedrine 100 gm dried ephedra could contain anywhere from 0 to 2.6 gm of ephedrine Herbalists do offer pure extract preparations Herbalists do offer pure extract preparations

28 28 Psilocybe Mushrooms: Potent Hallucinogen Psilocybin: 4-phosphoryloxy-N,N-DMT Psilocybin: 4-phosphoryloxy-N,N-DMT Psilocin: 4-hydroxy-N,N-DMT Psilocin: 4-hydroxy-N,N-DMT Psilocybe cubensis typically contains 1.6 mg psilocybin per gram of dried mushroom Psilocybe cubensis typically contains 1.6 mg psilocybin per gram of dried mushroom 40 mcg/kg intoxicates 40 mcg/kg intoxicates 3 to 4 hour duration 3 to 4 hour duration

29 29 Psilocybe Mushrooms Small brown mushrooms that stain blue to the touch Small brown mushrooms that stain blue to the touch Illicit cultivation but also foraged from temperate climates Illicit cultivation but also foraged from temperate climates

30 30 Psilocybe Mushrooms: Religious Use Religious use continues in Oaxaca, Mexico

31 31 Psilocybin content

32 32 Dimethyltryptamine – Potent Hallucinogen (DMT) N,N-Dimethyltryptamine N,N-Dimethyltryptamine 10 to 20 mg smoked : 15 minute intoxication 10 to 20 mg smoked : 15 minute intoxication Approximately 100mg oral ingestion in presence of an MAOI: 3-4 hour intoxication Approximately 100mg oral ingestion in presence of an MAOI: 3-4 hour intoxication Many sources Many sources Religious use of ayahuasca continues in Brazil; indigenous and “modern” religions: Santo Daime and Uniao do Vegetal. Both seek permission to use in the U.S. Religious use of ayahuasca continues in Brazil; indigenous and “modern” religions: Santo Daime and Uniao do Vegetal. Both seek permission to use in the U.S.

33 33 DMT…it’s as common as crabgrass… “Canary” grass; Phalaris aquatica, P. arundinacea, P. canariensis, P. tuberosa “Canary” grass; Phalaris aquatica, P. arundinacea, P. canariensis, P. tuberosa Desmanthus illinoensis; Prairie Bundleflower Desmanthus illinoensis; Prairie Bundleflower Many other sources; mostly S. America. Many other sources; mostly S. America.

34 34 DMT content Alkaloids reported as mg/100g raw dried plant Alkaloids reported as mg/100g raw dried plant P. tuberosa: DMT 100 mg+; 5-Me-DMT 22 mg+; 5-OH-DMT 5 mg P. tuberosa: DMT 100 mg+; 5-Me-DMT 22 mg+; 5-OH-DMT 5 mg P. arundinacea DMT 60+ mg P. arundinacea DMT 60+ mg Desmanthus illinoesis (root bark) DMT 340 mg Desmanthus illinoesis (root bark) DMT 340 mg Psychotria viridis: DMT 200 mg Psychotria viridis: DMT 200 mg

35 35 Phalaris spp.

36 36 Desmanthus illinoesis

37 37 Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors Sedative-hypnotic properties and possibly hallucinogenic/dissociative properties Sources: Peganum harmala, Passiflora spp., USED TO MAKE DMT ORALLY ACTIVE

38 38 Peganum harmala

39 39 Peganum harmala Commonly called Syrian rue Commonly called Syrian rue Contains reversible MAOIs that may also be psychoactive (2 to 4% beta-carboline content). Contains reversible MAOIs that may also be psychoactive (2 to 4% beta-carboline content). Ayahuasca’s MAOI source only has 0.5% beta-carboline content. Ayahuasca’s MAOI source only has 0.5% beta-carboline content. Passiflora: approx. 1% Passiflora: approx. 1%

40 40 Passiflora incarnata Passion flower; fruit used in drinks; some herbal preparations as a “sedative” Passion flower; fruit used in drinks; some herbal preparations as a “sedative”

41 41 Peyote – Potent Hallucinogen Contains mescaline Lophophoria williamsii

42 42 Natural Range of Peyote

43 43 Harvesting Peyote

44 44 Peyote Lophophoria williamsii contains 1.5% mescaline (  - 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine ) Lophophoria williamsii contains 1.5% mescaline (  - 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine ) 3mg/kg potent intoxication 3mg/kg potent intoxication Up to 8 to 10 hour duration Up to 8 to 10 hour duration Continued religious use in North America Continued religious use in North America Other cacti used in South America and also… Other cacti used in South America and also…

45 45 Trichocereus spp. Most popular source of non-sacramental mescaline in the U.S. isn’t peyote… Most popular source of non-sacramental mescaline in the U.S. isn’t peyote… These ornamental cacti can be found almost everywhere These ornamental cacti can be found almost everywhere

46 46 The Peyote Ceremony Stewart OC. Peyote Religion. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, Aberle DF. The Peyote Religion Among the Navaho. Chicago, IL: Aldine Publishing Co., 1966.

47 47 The Peyote Ceremony Reasons for a meeting Reasons for a meeting The Road Chief and… The Road Chief and… Tobacco prayers Tobacco prayers Ingestion of Peyote Ingestion of Peyote Power of song Power of song Water ceremony Water ceremony The morning after The morning after

48 48 Lysergic Acid Amide Ipomoea spp. (esp. I. purpurea) Morning Glory 5-10 grams of seeds Aztec: Oliliuqui Argyria nervosa Hawaiian Baby Woodrose 4-8 seeds ingested

49 49 Salvia divinorum potent hallucinogen Many other Salvia spp. may also contain psychoactive diterpenes. “Salvinorin A” Many other Salvia spp. may also contain psychoactive diterpenes. “Salvinorin A” Related to Sage plants/Mint family Related to Sage plants/Mint family Does not grow in the United States naturally, but can readily be cultivated. Mexican origin Does not grow in the United States naturally, but can readily be cultivated. Mexican origin First reported in 1962 but popularity increased via Internet… First reported in 1962 but popularity increased via Internet…

50 50 Salvia divinorum

51 51 Coleus?

52 52 Datura stramonium Potent Dissociative

53 53 Datura Leaves typically cut and smoked Leaves typically cut and smoked Contains atropine, scopalomine, and… Contains atropine, scopalomine, and… Ancient ceremonial use in the U.S. Ancient ceremonial use in the U.S. Occasional report of death by ingestion of root Occasional report of death by ingestion of root Many other sources for atropine and scopalomine…mandrake, henbane… Many other sources for atropine and scopalomine…mandrake, henbane…

54 54 Amanita muscaria Found throughout the U.S. Muscimol is the primary psychoactive alkaloid Dissociative

55 55 Bufo Frogs… Contains bufontinin but intoxication primarily from 5-Meo-DMT Contains bufontinin but intoxication primarily from 5-Meo-DMT The toad is NOT licked but glands are milked for poison The toad is NOT licked but glands are milked for poison

56 56 Botanical intoxicants…future mayhem? None of these plants are addictive, other than cultivation of the opium poppy in the U.S., which is not common. Illicit cultivation of Cannabis spp., of course, continues. None of these plants are addictive, other than cultivation of the opium poppy in the U.S., which is not common. Illicit cultivation of Cannabis spp., of course, continues. Eradication of the illicit drug market of hallucinogens may drive the “resourceful” to these botanicals more than today. Eradication of the illicit drug market of hallucinogens may drive the “resourceful” to these botanicals more than today. It is not feasible to eradicate these botanicals from U.S. territory It is not feasible to eradicate these botanicals from U.S. territory The Internet will drive an ever wider dissemination of information on these botanicals to those seeking this information The Internet will drive an ever wider dissemination of information on these botanicals to those seeking this information

57 57 References


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