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III. Psychoactive Plants w a) Stimulants w b) Hallucinogens w c) Depressants.

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Presentation on theme: "III. Psychoactive Plants w a) Stimulants w b) Hallucinogens w c) Depressants."— Presentation transcript:


2 III. Psychoactive Plants w a) Stimulants w b) Hallucinogens w c) Depressants

3 a) Stimulants Coca (Erythroxylum coca) w Source of cocaine w Main ingredient in original Coca Cola

4 Khat (Catha edulis) w Leaves are chewed w Known as “Flower of Paradise” in Native Africa w Active ingredient is the alkaloid, cathione, a natural amphetamine

5 Coffee (Coffea spp) Tea (Camellia sinensis) w Coffee made from roasted seeds w Tea made from leaves w Caffeine main stimulant w See Table 17.1 for other plants caffeinetheobromine


7 Cacao (Theobroma cacao) w Seeds source of powdered chocolate w Contains caffeine and theobromine w Name means food of the gods

8 Tobacco (Nicotiana spp) w Nicotine, an alkaloid is main stimulant in leaves, may also act as a depressant or tranquilizer

9 b) Hallucinogens Peyote (Lophora williamsii) w Eaten as mescal buttons or dried portion of plant w Active compounds are mescaline and other alkaloids w Causes nausea, visual disorientation, mental clarity, visualizations, and paralysis of the central nervous system

10 Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans) w Seeds are source of myristicin, an aromatic volatile (amphetamine- like substance) w Causes powerful hallucinations, hypnotic trances and euphoric bliss (Ecstasy) w Side effects are headaches, dizziness, nausea and sickening hangovers, can be toxic

11 Morning Glory ( Ipomoea violacea) w Seed contain an alkaloid, D- lysergic acid (LSD is a synthetic form) w Causes hallucinations similar to peyote

12 Belladonna (Atropa belladona) Part of the very dangerous Solanaceae family which have the Tropane Alkaloids w Contains an alkaloid called scopolamine. w Highly hallucinogenic and toxic w Used by witches in Europe w Stimulates and depresses medulla and higher cerebral centers w Relaxes smooth muscles and alters heart rate

13 Jimson Weed (Datura stramonium) w Contains Tropane alkaloids w Causes hallucinations, headaches, delirium, convulsions and coma

14 Marijuana (Cannabis sativa) w Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) formed when plant is dried w Common form here is an escapee used for hemp with 0.2 to 1% THC w Asian forms contain 3.4 to 6% THC w Treatment for nausea and glaucoma

15 c) Depressants w Alcoholic beverages

16 Kava (Piper methysticum) w Drink made from root or rhizomes w Active ingredients are kavapyrones w Causes relaxation, sleep and pain relief w Used in South Pacific Islands

17 Opium Poppy (Papaver somniferum) w More than 25 alkaloids including morphine and codeine w Effects central nervous system and intestines w Acts as painkiller, depresses respiration, decreases digestive juices and intestinal peristaltic contractions w Highly addictive!

18 Take Home Message w Plants contain many secondary compounds used for defense, but have medicinal, toxic and psychoactive properties to us; sometimes all within the same plant w BE CAREFUL what you eat or drink!

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