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SUBCATEGORIES 3: TRANSITIVITY Lec. 6. OBJECTIVES Understand the notions of argument structure, predicates & arguments Be able to identify subcategories.

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Presentation on theme: "SUBCATEGORIES 3: TRANSITIVITY Lec. 6. OBJECTIVES Understand the notions of argument structure, predicates & arguments Be able to identify subcategories."— Presentation transcript:

1 SUBCATEGORIES 3: TRANSITIVITY Lec. 6

2 OBJECTIVES Understand the notions of argument structure, predicates & arguments Be able to identify subcategories of verbs based on the number & type of arguments they take (i.e. valency of transitivity) represent these subcategories with features Like nouns, we will see the subcategorization of verbs; the number of nouns they take as obligatory companions.

3 1. ARGUMENTS VS. ADJUNCTS A predicate expresses a relation between individuals in the world (which can be abstract). The entities involved in the predicate are known as the arguments. E.g. Calvin ate the stinky tuna The Predicate: ate The Arguments: Calvin + the stinky tuna

4 1. ARGUMENTS VS. ADJUNCTS Predicates are typically verbs (verbal predicates), but they can also involve other parts of speech. Arguments can be nouns or determiners with nouns E.g. Calvin ate the stinky tuna The Predicate: ate The Arguments: Calvin + the stinky tuna

5 1. ARGUMENTS VS. ADJUNCTS 1.We will call all of these structures (arguments) Determiner Phrases or DPs. 2.Arguments can also be nouns and related structures marked with a preposition, which we will call Prepositional Phrases or PPs. E.g. Andrew sent a package to Dan The Predicate: The DP argument: The PP argument:

6 1. ARGUMENTS VS. ADJUNCTS 3.We can also find cases where embedded clauses (sentences inside sentences), which we will call Complementizer Phrases or CPs, serve as arguments: E.g. I thought [ CP that Calvin ate the stinky tuna]. The Predicate: The Complementizer Phrase or CP:

7 1. ARGUMENTS VS. ADJUNCTS Please remember that DPs: the group of words associated with nouns PPs: the group of words associated with a preposition at the front CPs: are clauses (essentially embedded sentences)

8 1. ARGUMENTS VS. ADJUNCTS Arguments only include the elements that are necessary for completing the meaning of the verb Any additional DPs or PPs are called adjuncts

9 1. ARGUMENTS VS. ADJUNCTS Calvin ate the tuna with a fork with a forkthe tunaateCalvin AdjunctArgumentPredicateArgument Art built the sun room on Friday on Fridaythe sun roombuiltArt AdjunctArgumentPredicateArgument Heidi put the avocado in the fridge in the fridgethe avocadoputHeidi Argument PredicateArgument

10 1. ARGUMENT VS. ADJUNCTS Being obligatory is a good guide to whether an element is an argument or an adjunct But remember ! Calvin ate the tuna. Calvin ate.

11 EXERCISE 1 I smiled Susan kissed Cathy with too much lipstick Pangur hit art with the cat toy I passed Dave the beef waffles last week

12 2. ARGUMENT STRUCTURE: TRANSITIVITY One traditional way to subcategorize verbs is to make reference to the number of arguments that they take (verb’s valency). A verb that takes one argument is said to be intransitive; those that take two are transitive, and those that take three are ditransitive. ExampleValencyTransitivity Arrive, sleep1 argumentIntransitive Love, want2 argumentsTransitive give, put,3 argumentsDitransitive

13 EXERCISE 2 Go back to exercise 1 and identify if the following verbs are intransitive, transitive, or ditransitive based on the sentences given. Note that adjuncts do not count in determining transitivity: 1.Smile ………………………………………………………………… 2.Kiss ………………………………………………………………… 3.Hit ………………………………………………………………… 4.Pass …………………………………………………………………

14 2. ARGUMENT STRUCTURE: TRANSITIVITY We need to distinguish verbs like ask, which allow either a DP (a determiner phrase) or a CP (a clause) as one of its arguments, from a verb like hit, which requires that the argument that follows be a DP and never a CP. E.g. 1.I asked [ DP the question] 2.I asked [ CP if you knew the answer] 3.I hit [ DP the ball] 4.* I hit [ CP that you knew the answer]

15 2. ARGUMENT STRUCTURE: TRANSITIVITY We will distinguish external arguments from internal arguments: External Feature: typically the subject, or the noun that comes before the verb Internal Feature: they come after the verb, i.e. direct & indirect objects Both INTERNAL & EXTERNAL features are values of the SUBCAT feature

16 EXAMPLE I The verb laugh requires that its subject be capable of laughing. This is only possible when 1.the subject is + animate 2.The subject argument of laugh must be a DP 3.The external arguments are placed between { }

17 LAUGH Laugh CATEGORY V SUBCAT EXTERNAL DP + animate

18 EXAMPLE II The verb bother can take either a DP or a CP as EXTERNAL properties, but it does not take a PP 1.[ DP Undercooked beef waffles] bother John 2.[ CP That Susan baked her beef waffles] bothers John 3.* [ PP With butter and jam] bother John 4.*/# The undercooked beef waffles bother [the stone] 5.* The undercooked beef waffles bother [ CP that the man left]

19 BOTHER Bother CATEGORY V SUBCAT EXTERNAL { DP/ CP } ENTERNAL DP + animate

20 EXAMPLE III Ditransitive verbs take two internal arguments 1.The verb put takes 2 internal arguments 2.The internal arguments are placed between which indicates an ordering 3.The verb put takes the following arguments e.g. I put [ DP the book] [ PP on the table] * I put [ DP the book] [ DP the table]

21 PUT Put CATEGORY V SUBCAT EXTERNAL DP + animate ENTERNAL

22 EXAMPLE IV The verb give allows more than one possible order: 1.I gave the book to Chris 2.I gave Chris the book

23 GIVE Give CATEGORY V SUBCAT EXTERNAL DP + animate ENTERNAL { } { }

24 EXERCISE I Arrive 1.I arrived 2.* [ PP to the store] arrived 3.* [ CP that Calvin sang] arrived 4.* I arrived [ DP the package] 5.* I arrived [ CP that Calvin sang] Please remember Ignore PPs in sentences like I arrived at the station, because they are adjuncts

25 EXERCISE I Arrive CATEGORY V SUBCAT EXTERNAL DP

26 EXERCISE II Rub 1.* I rub 2.I rubbed [ DP the genie’s Lamp] 3.* I rubbed [ PP to the genie] 4.*I rubbed [ CP that Calvin sang]

27 EXERCISE II rub CATEGORY V SUBCAT EXTERNAL DP + animate ENTERNAL DP

28 EXERCISE III Kiss 1.I kissed [ DP the policewoman] 2.*I kissed [ PP to the policewoman] 3.*I kissed that Calvin sang 4.*The store kissed the policewoman 5.I kissed the stone 6.I kissed water 7.*To me kissed the policewoman 8.*That Calvin sang kissed the policewoman

29 KISS kiss CATEGORY V SUBCAT EXTERNAL DP + animate ENTERNAL DP CP

30 EXERCISE IV Kill 1.*I kill 2.I killed [ DP the policeman] 3.* I killed [ PP to the policeman] 4.* I killed [ CP that Calvin sang] 5.The stone killed the policeman 6.* I killed the stone 7.* I killed the water 8.* [ PP to me] killed the policeman 9.* [ CP That Calvin sang] killed the policeman

31 KILL Kill CATEGORY V SUBCAT EXTERNAL DP ENTERNAL DP + animate

32 EXERCISE V Ask (transitive usage only) 1.I asked [ DP the question] 2.I asked [ CP if you knew the answer] 3.* The stone asked the question 4.* [ PP To me] asked the question 5.* [ CP That Calvin sang] asked the question

33 ASK Ask CATEGORY V SUBCAT EXTERNAL DP + animate ENTERNAL { DP } { CP }

34 EXERCISE VI Think 1.I thought [ DP the answer] 2.I thought [ CP that you knew the answer] 3.The stone though the answer 4.[ PP from me] thought the answer 5.[ CP that Calvin sang] thought the answer

35 THINK Think CATEGORY V SUBCAT EXTERNAL DP + animate ENTERNAL { DP } { CP }

36 EXERCISE VII Tell (ditransitive usage only) 1.I told [ DP Daniel] [ DP the story] 2.I told [ DP Daniel] [ CP that the exam was cancelled] 3.I told [ DP the story] [ PP to Daniel] 4.* I told [ PP to Daniel] [ DP the story] 5.* I told [ CP that the exam was cancelled] [ DP Daniel] 6.* I told [ DP the story] [ DP Danile]

37 TELL Tell CATEGORY V SUBCAT EXTERNAL DP ENTERNAL { } { }

38 HOME WORK Figure out the INTERNAL & EXTERNAL features for the verbs send & spray


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