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Subcategories of Verbs. THE VERB PHRASE VP V + Comp + Adjunct(PP) or (AdvP) What is Comp? Anything following the main verb necessary to make the sentence.

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Presentation on theme: "Subcategories of Verbs. THE VERB PHRASE VP V + Comp + Adjunct(PP) or (AdvP) What is Comp? Anything following the main verb necessary to make the sentence."— Presentation transcript:

1 Subcategories of Verbs

2 THE VERB PHRASE VP V + Comp + Adjunct(PP) or (AdvP) What is Comp? Anything following the main verb necessary to make the sentence GRAMMATICAL in the intended MEANING. Branching from the lowest branch nearest to the verb.

3 Complements & Adjuncts COMPLEMENTS Closely related to the head (verb) and essential to the meaning of a phrase. Mostly obligatory Sister to the predicate forming a ‘constituent’ ADJUNCTS Not related to the meaning of the verb. Can be repeated and moved in a sentence. Always optional. They are not close sisters to the verb.

4 WHAT ARE THE VERB PHRASE COMPLEMENTS? Test: 1. Delete one phrase. 2. If the result is ungrammatical then the phrase is a complement of V. 3. If the result is grammatical BUT the meaning of the verb changes then the phrase is also a complement of V. 4. If the meaning of the verb does not change then the phrase is not part of the complement of V.

5 I put the box in the closet Delete ( the box) I put in the closet. * Delete (in the closet) I put the box. * That means that BOTH phrases are parts of the complement of the verb. THUS : Put : [NP– NP PP]

6 I fried an egg on the sidewalk Delete (an egg) I fried on the sidewalk. (grammatical but meaning changed) Delete (on the sidewalk) I fried an egg. Grammatical, & reserves the meaning of (fry) That means (on the sidewalk) is not part of the complement of V. Fry: [ NP --- NP ]

7 SUBCATEGORIES EXAMPLESFEATURESSUB- CATEGORY sleep, escape, arrive [ NP ---]Intransitive Hit, wipe, thank, love, pour, kiss [NP --- NP]Transitive (type 1) Ask, think, say,[NP --- { NP/CP}]Transitive (type 2)

8 SUBCATEGORIES EXAMPLESFEATURESSUB- CATEGORY Spare, name[NP– NP NP]Ditransitive (Type 1) Put, place, keep [NP – NP PP]Ditransitive (Type 2) Give, throw, send, bring [NP– NP {NP PP}]Ditransitive (Type 3) Tell, show, promise [NP– NP {NP/PP/CP}] Ditransitive (Type 4)


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