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Health Occupations Muscular System – Unit 1. MuscleLocation Function FrontalisAbove nose & eyesRaises eyebrows TemporalisTemples Closes the jaw Orbicularis.

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Presentation on theme: "Health Occupations Muscular System – Unit 1. MuscleLocation Function FrontalisAbove nose & eyesRaises eyebrows TemporalisTemples Closes the jaw Orbicularis."— Presentation transcript:

1 Health Occupations Muscular System – Unit 1

2 MuscleLocation Function FrontalisAbove nose & eyesRaises eyebrows TemporalisTemples Closes the jaw Orbicularis OcculiAround eyeCloses eye MasseterJaw Clenches teeth Orbicularis Oris Around lipsCloses lips, kisses TrapeziusUpper back & neckExtends head, shoulder Sternocleidomastoid side of neckTurns & flexes head DeltoidShoulderAbducts arm, injection PectoralisUpper chestAdducts & flexes arm Triceps Upper armExtends lower arm Serratus Ventral lower ribsMoves scapula Anterior bicepsUpper armFlexes lower arm Lattisimus dorsiSpine around to chestExtends, adducts arm Rectus abdominisRibs to pubisCompresses abd Exterior obliqueLower abd/pelvis (lat)Bends/rotates vertebrae SartoriusFront of thighAbducts & flexes Rectus femorisFront of thighExtends leg Vastus lateralisLateral thighExtends knee Vastus medialisMedial thighExtends knee gastrocnemiusBack of lower legFlexes sole of foot Tibialis anterior Front of lower leg Flexes & inverts foot Bicep femoralisBack of thighFlexes knee, lat rotate thigh, extends hip Gluteus maximusbuttocks Extends thigh, injection Achilles tendonBack of calf Allows calf to function

3 Frontalis Sternocleidomastoid Trapezius Deltoid Pectoralis Triceps Serratus Biceps Latissmus dorsi Rectus abdominus Exterior oblique Gluteus maximus Sartorius Rectus femoris Vastus lateralis Vastus medialis Gastrocnemius Tibialis anterior Achilles tendon

4 Muscular System Made up of over 600 muscles Organs – bundles of muscle fibers held in place by connective tissue Contraction –Movement of muscles when stimulated Tonus –Muscle’s ability to maintain slight & continuous contraction

5 Muscular System Types of stimulation –Electrical –Mechanical –Chemical When not contracted, muscles are FLACCID or soft

6 Properties of muscles Excitability –Irritability, ability to respond to a stimulus such as a nervous impulse Contractility –Ability to shorten forcefully when stimulated Extensibility –Ability to be stretched Elasticity –Ability to recoil to its resting length when relaxed

7 Functions of muscle Aids in movement Provides & maintains posture Protects internal organs Provides movement of blood, food, & wastes through the body Opens & closes body openings Produces heat

8 Types of muscle tissue Muscle typeAppearanceManner of control SkeletalStriatedVoluntary VisceralSmoothInvoluntary CardiacIndistinctly striated involuntary

9 Skeletal Muscle >40% of body weight Increases in size & weight with exercise Decreases in size & weight with inactivity Variety of sizes & shapes due to genetics, nutrition, & exercise Tendons – attach muscles to bone –Narrow strips of dense connective tissue –Gastrocnemius Calf muscle attaches with the Achilles tendon to the heel

10 Skeletal Muscle Fascia – –Tough, sheetlike membrane –Covers & protects tissue Deep muscles of back & trunk are surrounded by lumbodorsal fascia Named by: –Location –Related bones –Shape –Action –Size

11 Skeletal Muscle Appearance –Striated under microscope –Made up of bundles of fine fibers –Number of fibers doesn’t increase much after birth –Muscle mass increases due to increase in fiber SIZE not number

12 Actions & Movements of skeletal muscles Adduction – toward midline Abduction – away from midline Flexion – decreasing angle between 2 bones Extension – increasing angle between 2 bones Rotation – turning a part around its own axis Circumduction – moving in a a joint Pronation – turning hand or foot downward or backward Supination – turning hand or foot upward or forward

13 Flexion Extension Rotation Abduction Adduction Supination Pronation

14 Sarcomere Basic unit of muscle fibers causing muscular contraction Made up of actin & myosin myofibrils Most contract under voluntary control 3 parts to skeletal muscle –Origin – the end of muscle attaching to less moveable part of bone –Action or body – thick, middle part of muscle –Insertion – the end of muscle attaching to most moveable part of bone

15 Sarcomere (cont) Movement occurs by pulling bones, working in PAIRS –One muscle contracts –Counteracting muscle relaxes Prime mover – AGONIST –Pulls to contract muscle Antagonist muscle – –Relaxes when agonist contracts Synergists & fixators –Keep muscle & bone stable during movement

16 Skeletal Muscle Tissue Origin Action or body Insertion Contracted Relaxed Contracted

17 Sarcomere (cont) Atrophy –Shrinking in size & loss of strength of muscle –Occurs when muscle is not used over time Contracture –Severe tightening of a flexor muscle –Results in bending of a joint –Foot drop is common

18 Visceral Muscle Smooth, NO striations like skeletal muscle Contracts when stimulated Controlled by autonomic nervous system Lines various organs –Makes up walls of blood vessels –Found in tubes of digestive system –Sphincter muscles (circular) Opens & closes pupils Urinary bladder

19 Cardiac muscle Found only in heart Indistinctly striated Involuntary control Has specialized cells that provide a stimulus for contraction - PACEMAKER

20 Range of Motion (ROM) Standards –Move each joint slowly, gently, smoothly –Support each joint during movement –Don’t move joint past its present level of movement –If pain occurs, stop movement & report –Watch face, especially eyes, for signs of pain –Discuss exercise plan with charge nurse –Perform ROM on one side of body at a time –Move each joint 5 times

21 ROM Procedure Wash hands Identify client Explain procedure & ask permission to perform skill Provide privacy

22 ROM Shoulder –Hold wrist & elbow –Flexion & extension –Abduction & adduction –Horizontal abduction & adduction (hand to opposite shoulder, then back out to shoulder level) –Rotation of elbow, up & down like hand signal

23 ROM Elbow –Hold wrist & elbow –Flexion & extension –Rotation of hand, up & down towards face & feet

24 ROM Wrist –Hold wrist & fingers –Flexion & extension –Hyperextension of hand –Abduction & adduction of wrist –Tilt Hand towards toes, bring hand, thumb side up, towards nose

25 ROM Fingers/Thumbs –Hold hand –Make fist to flex fingers –Straighten fist by extending fingers –Abduction, adduction of all fingers –Thumb abduction, adduction –Thumb opposition

26 ROM Hip & Knee –Hold knee & ankle –Flexion knee & hip, extend knee, return to resting position –Abduction & adduction –Rotation of leg, inward & outward

27 ROM Ankle –Hold ankle & foot –Flexion & extension of foot –Foot abduction & adduction

28 ROM Toes –Hold foot –Flexion & extension of toes –Abduction & adduction of toes To finish –Position comfortably –Bed lowest position –Side rails up, call light in place –Wash hands


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