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Health Occupations Muscular System – Unit 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Health Occupations Muscular System – Unit 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Health Occupations Muscular System – Unit 1

2 Muscle Location Function Frontalis Above nose & eyes Raises eyebrows Temporalis Temples Closes the jaw Orbicularis Occuli Around eye Closes eye Masseter Jaw Clenches teeth Orbicularis Oris Around lips Closes lips, kisses Trapezius Upper back & neck Extends head, shoulder Sternocleidomastoid side of neck Turns & flexes head Deltoid Shoulder Abducts arm, injection Pectoralis Upper chest Adducts & flexes arm Triceps Upper arm Extends lower arm Serratus Ventral lower ribs Moves scapula Anterior biceps Upper arm Flexes lower arm Lattisimus dorsi Spine around to chest Extends, adducts arm Rectus abdominis Ribs to pubis Compresses abd Exterior oblique Lower abd/pelvis (lat) Bends/rotates vertebrae Sartorius Front of thigh Abducts & flexes Rectus femoris Front of thigh Extends leg Vastus lateralis Lateral thigh Extends knee Vastus medialis Medial thigh Extends knee gastrocnemius Back of lower leg Flexes sole of foot Tibialis anterior Flexes & inverts foot Front of lower leg Bicep femoralis Back of thigh Flexes knee, lat rotate thigh, extends hip Gluteus maximus buttocks Extends thigh, injection Achilles tendon Back of calf Allows calf to function

3 Frontalis Sternocleidomastoid Trapezius Deltoid Pectoralis Triceps Serratus Biceps Latissmus dorsi Rectus abdominus Exterior oblique Sartorius Gluteus maximus Rectus femoris Vastus lateralis Vastus medialis Gastrocnemius Tibialis anterior Achilles tendon

4 Muscular System Made up of over 600 muscles
Organs – bundles of muscle fibers held in place by connective tissue Contraction Movement of muscles when stimulated Tonus Muscle’s ability to maintain slight & continuous contraction

5 Muscular System Types of stimulation
Electrical Mechanical Chemical When not contracted, muscles are FLACCID or soft

6 Properties of muscles Excitability Contractility Extensibility
Irritability, ability to respond to a stimulus such as a nervous impulse Contractility Ability to shorten forcefully when stimulated Extensibility Ability to be stretched Elasticity Ability to recoil to its resting length when relaxed

7 Functions of muscle Aids in movement Provides & maintains posture
Protects internal organs Provides movement of blood, food, & wastes through the body Opens & closes body openings Produces heat

8 Indistinctly striated
Types of muscle tissue Muscle type Appearance Manner of control Skeletal Striated Voluntary Visceral Smooth Involuntary Cardiac Indistinctly striated involuntary

9 Skeletal Muscle >40% of body weight
Increases in size & weight with exercise Decreases in size & weight with inactivity Variety of sizes & shapes due to genetics, nutrition, & exercise Tendons – attach muscles to bone Narrow strips of dense connective tissue Gastrocnemius Calf muscle attaches with the Achilles tendon to the heel

10 Skeletal Muscle Fascia – Named by: Tough, sheetlike membrane
Covers & protects tissue Deep muscles of back & trunk are surrounded by lumbodorsal fascia Named by: Location Related bones Shape Action Size

11 Skeletal Muscle Appearance Striated under microscope
Made up of bundles of fine fibers Number of fibers doesn’t increase much after birth Muscle mass increases due to increase in fiber SIZE not number

12 Actions & Movements of skeletal muscles
Adduction – toward midline Abduction – away from midline Flexion – decreasing angle between 2 bones Extension – increasing angle between 2 bones Rotation – turning a part around its own axis Circumduction – moving in a a joint Pronation – turning hand or foot downward or backward Supination – turning hand or foot upward or forward

13 Flexion Rotation Extension Abduction Pronation Supination Adduction

14 Sarcomere Basic unit of muscle fibers causing muscular contraction
Made up of actin & myosin myofibrils Most contract under voluntary control 3 parts to skeletal muscle Origin – the end of muscle attaching to less moveable part of bone Action or body – thick, middle part of muscle Insertion – the end of muscle attaching to most moveable part of bone

15 Sarcomere (cont) Movement occurs by pulling bones, working in PAIRS
One muscle contracts Counteracting muscle relaxes Prime mover – AGONIST Pulls to contract muscle Antagonist muscle – Relaxes when agonist contracts Synergists & fixators Keep muscle & bone stable during movement

16 Contracted Skeletal Muscle Tissue Relaxed Origin Action or body Relaxed Insertion Contracted

17 Sarcomere (cont) Atrophy Contracture
Shrinking in size & loss of strength of muscle Occurs when muscle is not used over time Contracture Severe tightening of a flexor muscle Results in bending of a joint Foot drop is common

18 Visceral Muscle Smooth, NO striations like skeletal muscle
Contracts when stimulated Controlled by autonomic nervous system Lines various organs Makes up walls of blood vessels Found in tubes of digestive system Sphincter muscles (circular) Opens & closes pupils Urinary bladder

19 Cardiac muscle Found only in heart Indistinctly striated
Involuntary control Has specialized cells that provide a stimulus for contraction - PACEMAKER

20 Range of Motion (ROM) Standards
Move each joint slowly, gently, smoothly Support each joint during movement Don’t move joint past its present level of movement If pain occurs, stop movement & report Watch face, especially eyes, for signs of pain Discuss exercise plan with charge nurse Perform ROM on one side of body at a time Move each joint 5 times

21 ROM Procedure Wash hands Identify client
Explain procedure & ask permission to perform skill Provide privacy

22 ROM Shoulder Hold wrist & elbow Flexion & extension
Abduction & adduction Horizontal abduction & adduction (hand to opposite shoulder, then back out to shoulder level) Rotation of elbow, up & down like hand signal

23 ROM Elbow Hold wrist & elbow Flexion & extension
Rotation of hand, up & down towards face & feet

24 ROM Wrist Hold wrist & fingers Flexion & extension
Hyperextension of hand Abduction & adduction of wrist Tilt Hand towards toes, bring hand, thumb side up, towards nose

25 ROM Fingers/Thumbs Hold hand Make fist to flex fingers
Straighten fist by extending fingers Abduction, adduction of all fingers Thumb abduction, adduction Thumb opposition

26 ROM Hip & Knee Hold knee & ankle
Flexion knee & hip, extend knee, return to resting position Abduction & adduction Rotation of leg, inward & outward

27 ROM Ankle Hold ankle & foot Flexion & extension of foot
Foot abduction & adduction

28 ROM Toes To finish Hold foot Flexion & extension of toes
Abduction & adduction of toes To finish Position comfortably Bed lowest position Side rails up, call light in place Wash hands

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