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Muscles of the upper extremity. Upper limb musculature.

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Presentation on theme: "Muscles of the upper extremity. Upper limb musculature."— Presentation transcript:

1 Muscles of the upper extremity

2 Upper limb musculature

3

4 Scapula Muscles If the origin is on the scapula – moves the arm –Subscapularis –Supraspinatus –Infraspinatus –Teres Minor –Teres Major –Latissimus Dorsi (partial attachment) –Coracobrachialis Rotator Cuff pg 656

5 Scapula Muscles If the insertion is on the scapula – moves the scapula –Rhomboids –Trapezius –Pectoralis Minor –Serratus Ventralis –Levator Scapulae Use location of Insertion to determine movement!! pg 656

6 Arm Muscles Arm Compartments –Anterior Compartment (3 muscles) Flexors of forearm and arm –Posterior Compartment (1 muscle) Extensor of forearm and arm pg 667 Remember: If you cross the shoulder, you move the arm; if you cross the elbow, you move the forearm

7 Arm Muscles Anterior compartment –Brachialis –Coracobrachialis –Biceps brachii Long head Short head pg 718 pg 715

8 Arm Muscles Posterior compartment –Triceps brachii Long head Medial head Lateral head pg 717

9 Muscles of Arm MuscleOriginInsertionActionInnerv Anterior BrachialisAnt shaft, distal humerusCoronoid process /ulnar tuberosity (ulna) Flex forearm Musculo- cutaneous Biceps BrachiiLong: supraglenoid tubercle (scapula) Short: coracoid proc (scapula) Radial Tuberosity (radius) Flex forearm, Supination Musculo- cutaneous CoracobrachialisCoracoid proc (scapula)Medial surface midshaft (humerus) Flex arm, Adduct arm Musculo- cutaneous Posterior Triceps BrachiiLong: Infraglenoid tubercle (scapula) Medial: Posterior Shaft (middle humerus) Lateral: Posterior Shaft (proximal humerus) Common tendon to olecranon (ulna) Extend forearm Radial

10 Forearm Muscles Cross elbow, wrist and finger joints Movement of hand and fingers Proximally are fleshy Distally have long tendons Flexor and extensor retinacula –“wristbands” –Keep tendons from jumping outwards when tensed pg 738

11 Forearm Muscles Anterior compartment –Superficial and Deep layers –Flexors of hand and fingers –Most flexors have common origin on medial epicondyle –Contains 2 pronator muscles Posterior compartment –Superficial and Deep layers –Extensors of hand and fingers –Most extensors have common origin on lateral epicondyle –Contains a supinator muscle pg 732

12 Anterior Compartment of Forearm MusclesNerves –Superficial Flexor digitorum superficialisMedian Flexor carpi radialisMedian Pronator teresMedian Palmaris longusMedian Flexor carpi ulnarisUlnar –Deep Pronator quadratusMedian Flexor pollicis longusMedian Flexor digitorum profundusUlnar (med 1/2) Median (lat 1/2) pg 738, 740

13 Posterior Compartment of Forearm Muscles Nerves –Superficial BrachioradialisRadial AnconeusRadial Extensor carpi radialis longus & brevis Radial Extensor digitorum Radial Extensor carpi ulnarisRadial Extensor digiti minimiRadial –Deep SupinatorRadial Abductor pollicis longusRadial Extensor pollicis longus + brevis Radial Extensor indicusRadial pg 746

14 Intrinsic Muscles of the Hand MuscleNerve Pinky = Hypothenar muscles –All digiti minimiUlnar (Flexor, Abductor, Opponens) Thumb = Thenar muscles –Abductor pollicis brevisMedian –Flexor pollicis brevisMedian –Opponens pollicisMedian –Adductor pollicisUlnar Other Intrinsic Muscles –Palmar + Dorsal InterosseiUlnar –LumbricalsMedian, Ulnar

15 Elevators Deltoideus Origin: Lateral half of clavicle, Scapular spine, acromion process Insertion: Deltoid tuberosity of humerus Action: Abducts humerus (also flexes, extends, rotates and adducts) Innervation: Axillary nerve

16 Deltoid

17 What You Should Know 3:UPPER LIMB COMPLICATIONS Origin, insertion, innervation and action of the following (Cartmill pages ) Trapezius Serratus anterior Levator scapulae Rhomboid major Rhomboid minor Latissimus Dorsi Pectoralis Major (Sternal, Clavicular) and Minor

18 What You Should Know 4. THE SHOULDER Cartmill pages Origin, insertion, innervation and action of the following: Teres MajorSubscapularis Teres minorDeltoid Pectoralis MajorSupraspinatus Infraspinatus

19 Musculature Crossing the Elbow Joint

20 Muscles moving the elbow all cross the joint and insert on the bones of the forearm. They may originate from the scapula or the brachium (humerus).

21 Which muscle is NOT a flexor of the elbow? A B C D Answer =A Coracobrachialis

22 The Coracobrachialis makes up part of the mass of the upper arm but doesn’t actually cross the joint (scapula to humerus only).

23 Origin: coracoid process Insertion: Humerus Flexion and adduction of humerus. Musculocutaneous nerve

24 Elbow extensors Triceps brachii (Radial Nerve)

25 Triceps = Quadriceps Cranial/dorsal

26 Origin: Long Head: Glenoid Fossa Medial & Lateral Heads: Posterior surface of humeral shaft Insertion: Olecranon process of ulna Action: Extends elbow

27 Triceps Long Head Triceps, Lateral Head

28 Elbow flexors Brachii(brachial group) (Here, spelling counts…)

29 Hamstrings = brachii Caudal/ventral

30 Biceps brachii (musculocutaneous n.) Origin: Short head: coracoid process Long head; glenoid fossa Insertion: Proximal radius Action: Flexes elbow supinates

31 Brachialis (musculocutaneous n.) Origin: Humeral shaft Insertion Proximal ulna Action: flexes elbow

32 Corcobrachialis Brachialis Biceps

33 Brachioradialis (Radial n.* exception) Origin: distal humerus Insertion: Styloid process of ulna Action: Flexes elbow

34 Brachioradialis Flexor Carpi Radialis Flexor Digitorum Superficialis Flexor Carpi Ulnaris

35 FLEXORS of the Wrist

36 Flexors = Flexors Caudal/ventral

37 Superficial Layer Flexor carpi radialis Median n. Origin: Medial epicondyle of humerus Insertion: Base of 2 nd & 3 rd metacarpals Action: Flexes wrist; abducts hand

38 Superficial Layer Palmaris longus Median n. Origin: Medial epicondyle of humerus Insertion: Palmar aponeurosis Action: Flexes wrist

39 Superficial Layer Flexor carpi ulnaris Ulnar n. Origin: Medial epicondyle of humerus Insertion: Pisiform and base of 5 th metacarpal Action: Flexes wrist; adducts hand

40 Intermediate Layer Flexor digitorum superficialis Median n Origin: Medial epicondyle of humerus Insertion: Middle phalanges of fingers 2-5 Action: Flexes wrist and middle phalanges

41 Deep Layer Flexor pollicis longus Median n Origin: Anterior surface of radius Insertion: Distal phalanx of thumb Action: Flexes distal phalanx of thumb

42 Deep Layer Flexor digitorum profundus Median n Origin: Anteromedial surface ulna Insertion: Distal phalanges of fingers 2-5 Action: Flexes distal phalanges

43 Brachioradialis Flexor Carpi Radialis Flexor Digitorum Superficialis Flexor Carpi Ulnaris

44 EXTENSORS of the Wrist

45 Extensors = Extensors Caudal/dorsal

46 Superficial Extensor carpi radialis brevis Radial n. Origin: Lateral epicondyle of humerus Insertion: Base of 3 rd metacarpal Action: Extends and abducts wrist

47 Superficial Extensor digitorum minimi Radial n. Origin: Lateral epicondyle of humerus Insertion: Distal phalange of little finger Action: Extends little finger

48 Superficial Extensor digitorum Radial n. Origin: Lateral epicondyle of humerus Insertion: Distal phalange of fingers 2-4 Action: Extends fingers and wrist; abduct fingers

49 Extensor Carpi Radialis Abductor Pollicis Longus Extensor Retinaculum Extensor Carpi Ularis Extensor Indicis Extensor Digitorum Superficialis

50 Deep Extensor indices Radial n. Origin: Posterior surface of distal ulna Insertion: Extensor expansion of index finger Action: Extends index finger

51 Deep Extensor pollicis longus Radial n. Origin: Dorsal shaft of radius and ulna Insertion: Base of distal phalanx of thumb Action: Extends thumb

52 Deep Extensor pollicis brevis Radial n. Origin: Dorsal shaft of radius and ulna Insertion: Base of proximal phalanx of thumb Action: Extends thumb

53 Deep Abductor pollicis longus Radial n. Origin: Posterior surface of radius and ulna Insertion: Base of 1 st metacarpal Action: Abducts and extends thumb

54 Muscles of Pronation and Supination

55 Deep Abductor pollicis longus Radial n. Origin: Posterior surface of radius and ulna Insertion: Base of 1 st metacarpal Action: Abducts and extends thumb

56 Supination: Movement of the radius and ulna Lateral rotation of the arm so palm faces superiorally (anatomical position)

57 Ulna and Radius are parallel

58 Pronation: Opposite of supination Medial rotation of the arm so palm faces inferiorally Relaxed position

59 Ulna and Radius are crossed

60 Supination Supinator Radial n. Origin: Lateral epicondyle of humerus Insertion: Proximal end of radius Action: Supinates forearm

61 Supinator

62 Supination Biceps brachii musculocutaneous n. Origin: Short head: coracoid process Long head; glenoid fossa Insertion: Proximal radius Action: Flexes elbow supinates

63 Pronation Pronator teres Median n. Origin: Medial condyle of humerus Coronoid process of ulna Insertion: Lateral radius (midshaft) Action: Pronates forearm

64 Pronation Pronator quadratus Median n. Origin: Distal portion of anterior ulnar shaft Insertion: Distal surface of anterior radius Action: Pronates forearm

65 Pronator Teres Pronator Quadratus

66 What You Should Know 1:Muscles Crossing the Elbow Joint Flexors (ventral) Extensors (dorsal) 2: Muscles Crossing the Wrist Joint Flexors (ventral) Extensors (dorsal)

67 What You Should Know 3:Muscles of Elbow Extension, Flexion Origin and Insertion Innervation 3:Muscles of Pronation and Supination Origin and Insertion Innervation

68 What You Should Know 3:Serial Homologs of Major Groups 4:Functions of all Muscles Presented 5: A Summary of these muscles are in the Laboratory Manual and Cartmill’s Text.


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