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Prof. Saeed Abuel Makarem FOREARM. objectives By the end of the lecture you should be able to: By the end of the lecture you should be able to: Enumerates.

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Presentation on theme: "Prof. Saeed Abuel Makarem FOREARM. objectives By the end of the lecture you should be able to: By the end of the lecture you should be able to: Enumerates."— Presentation transcript:

1 Prof. Saeed Abuel Makarem FOREARM

2 objectives By the end of the lecture you should be able to: By the end of the lecture you should be able to: Enumerates the group of muscles forming the forearm. Enumerates the group of muscles forming the forearm. Arrange these muscles into anterior (flexors) and posterior (extensors). Arrange these muscles into anterior (flexors) and posterior (extensors). Enumerate each of these groups of muscles into superficial and deep muscles. Enumerate each of these groups of muscles into superficial and deep muscles. Remember the nerve supply and action of these muscles. Remember the nerve supply and action of these muscles.

3 extends from the elbow to the wrist. The forearm extends from the elbow to the wrist. It posses two bones radius laterally & Ulna medially. It posses two bones radius laterally & Ulna medially. The 2 bones articulating with each other in superior and inferior radioulnar joints. The 2 bones articulating with each other in superior and inferior radioulnar joints. The two bones are connected together by interosseous membrane. The two bones are connected together by interosseous membrane. This membrane allows movement of and while the two bones are connected together. This membrane allows movement of Pronation and Supination while the two bones are connected together. Also it gives origin for the deep muscles. Also it gives origin for the deep muscles.

4 Fascial Compartments of the Forearm The forearm is enclosed in a sheath of deep fascia. The deep fascia is attached to posterior subcutaneous border of the ulna. This fascial sheath, together with the interosseous membrane & intermuscular septa, divides the forearm into several compartments, each having its own muscles, nerves, and blood supply.

5 I-Superficial: 4 1. Pronator teres. 2. Flexor carpi radialis. 3. Palmaris longus. 4. Flexor carpi ulnaris. II-Intermediate: 1  Flexor digitorum superficialis. These muscles: are (8) They act on the elbow, wrist joints and the fingers. They form fleshy masses in the proximal part and become tendinous in the distal part of the forearm. They are arranged in three groups: III- Deep: 3 1. Flexor digitorum profundus. 2. Flexor pollicis longus. 3. Pronator quadratus. Anterior compartment - FLEXOR GROUP

6 Superficial Flexors They arise - more or less- from the common flexor origin (front of medial epicondyle). All are supplied by median nerve except one, flexor carpi ulnaris, FCU (ulnar n.). All cross the wrist joint except one, pronator teres, (PT).

7 Pronator teres Insertion: middle of lat. surface of radius Pronator teres Insertion: middle of lat. surface of radius Action: pronation & flexion of forearm. Action: pronation & flexion of forearm. Flexor Carpi Radialis Flexor Carpi Radialis Insertion: Base of 2 nd metacarpal bone Insertion: Base of 2 nd metacarpal bone Action: Flexion & abduction of the wrist. Action: Flexion & abduction of the wrist. Palmaris Longus Palmaris Longus Insertion: into the flexor retinaculum & palmer aponeurosis. Action: Flexes hand & tightens the palmer aponeurosis May Be Absent

8 Flexor Retinaculum Thick band of deep fascia infront of the wrist joint. Thick band of deep fascia infront of the wrist joint. It keeps the long flexor tendons in position. It keeps the long flexor tendons in position. Structures passing superficial to the retinaculum, from medial to lateral: Structures passing superficial to the retinaculum, from medial to lateral: 1. Ulnar nerve. 2. Ulnar artery. 3. Palmar cutaneous branch of ulnar. 4. Tendon of palmaris longus. 5. Palmar cutaneous branch of median nerve.

9 Flexor Carpi Ulnaris Flexor Carpi Ulnaris Insertion: Insertion: Pisiform, Pisiform, hook of hamate hook of hamate 5 th metacarpal bone 5 th metacarpal bone Action: Action: Flexion and adduction of the hand (wrist) Flexion and adduction of the hand (wrist) Flexor Digitorum Superficialis Flexor Digitorum Superficialis Origin: Origin: Common flexor origin, Common flexor origin, Coronoid process of ulna; Coronoid process of ulna; Anterior surface of radius Insertion: Insertion:. Base of middle phalanges of the medial 4 fingers. Action: Action: Flexes middle and proximal phalanges of medial 4 fingers, and the hand (wrist). Flexes middle and proximal phalanges of medial 4 fingers, and the hand (wrist).

10 Deep Flexors One above radius: Flexor pollicis longus. One above radius: Flexor pollicis longus. One above ulna: Flexor Digitorum profundus. One above ulna: Flexor Digitorum profundus. One above the two One above the two bones: bones: Pronator Quadratus.

11 Flexor Digitorum Profundus (Double nerve supply). Flexor Digitorum Profundus (Double nerve supply). Insertion: bases of the distal phalanges of the medial four digits Insertion: bases of the distal phalanges of the medial four digits Action: Flexes distal phalanges of medial four fingers Action: Flexes distal phalanges of medial four fingers Flexor Pollicis Longus Flexor Pollicis Longus Insertion: Base of distal phalanx of thumb Insertion: Base of distal phalanx of thumb Action: flexes interphalangeal, metacarpophalangeal & carpometacarpal joints of thumb Action: flexes interphalangeal, metacarpophalangeal & carpometacarpal joints of thumb Pronator Quadratus Pronator Quadratus Insertion: distal fourth of ant. surface of radius Insertion: distal fourth of ant. surface of radius Action: pronates forearm (primover), helps to hold the bones together Action: pronates forearm (primover), helps to hold the bones together

12 Supination and pronation It occurs in the superior and inferior radioulnar joints; (pivot synovial joint) Muscles produce supination Biceps brachii, (flexed elbow Supinator, (extended elbow) Muscles produce pronation Pronator teres. pronator quadratus. NB. Brachioradialis put the forearm in midprone- supine position.

13 Posterior compartment: 3 groups Superficial group 5  Extensor carpi radialis brevis  Extensor digitorum  Extensor digiti minimi  Extensor carpi ulnaris  Anconeus Deep group 5 (3 to thumb + 1 to index + supinator).  Supinator.  Abductor pollicis longus.  Extensor pollicis brevis.  Extensor pollicis longus.  Extensor indices. Origin: Common Extensor Origin. (front of the lateral epicondyle). Lateral group 2  Brachioradialis  Extensor carpi radialis longus (The 2 muscles originate from the lateral supracondylar ridge).

14 Posterior compartment I- Superficial group: I- Superficial group: 7 muscles ( from lateral to medial) 7 muscles ( from lateral to medial) Brachioradialis, (BR). Brachioradialis, (BR). Extensor carpi radialis longus, (ECRL). Extensor carpi radialis longus, (ECRL). Extensor carpi radialis brevis, (ECRB). Extensor carpi radialis brevis, (ECRB). Extensor digitorum, (ED). وبس Extensor digitorum, (ED). وبس Extensor digiti minimi, (EDM). Extensor digiti minimi, (EDM). Extensor carpi ulnaris, (ECU). Extensor carpi ulnaris, (ECU). Anconeus. (An). Anconeus. (An).

15 Superficial extensors All arises from the common extensor origin, (front of lateral epicondyle) of the humerus, EXCEPT, 3 (BR, EXRL & anconeus). All arises from the common extensor origin, (front of lateral epicondyle) of the humerus, EXCEPT, 3 (BR, EXRL & anconeus). All cross the wrist EXCEPT, 2, (brachioradialis & Anconeus) All cross the wrist EXCEPT, 2, (brachioradialis & Anconeus) All supplied by deep branch of radial nerve, EXCEPT ABE All supplied by deep branch of radial nerve, EXCEPT ABE A, Anconeus. A, Anconeus. B, Brachioradialis B, Brachioradialis E, Extensor carpi radialis. longus. E, Extensor carpi radialis. longus. These 3 muscles are supplied by the radial nerve itself These 3 muscles are supplied by the radial nerve itself

16 Brachioradialis Brachioradialis Origin: Origin: Lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus Insertion: Insertion: Base of styloid process of radius. Action: Action: Flexes forearm; (elbow). Rotates forearm to the midprone supine position. Extensor Carpi radialis longus Extensor Carpi radialis longus Origin: Origin: Lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus. Insertion: Insertion: Posterior surface of base of second metacarpal bone. Action: Action: Extends and abducts hand at wrist joint.

17 Extensor carpi radialis brevis: base of 3 rd metacarpal bone. Extensor digitorum: Extensor expansion of the medial 4 fingers. Extensor digiti minimi: Extensor expansion of the little finger. Extensor carpi ulnaris: Base of the 5 th metacarpal bone. INSERTION

18 II- Deep group: 5 muscles 1- Abductor pollicis longus, (APL). 2- Extensor pollicis brevis, (EPB). 3- Extensor pollicis longus, (EPL). 4- Extensor indicis (EI). 5- Supinator. All back muscles of forearm are supplied by posterior interosseous nerve (deep branch of radial nerve), except, ABE by Radial nerve.

19 Dorsal Extensor Expansion It is formed by the union of the tendons of: Extensor digitorum, Extensor indicis, extensor digiti minimi, palmar & dorsal interossei and lumbricals muscles. All these tendons unite to form one tendon above the proximal phalanges. Then each divides into 3 slips, a median one attached to middle phalanges and 2 lateral attached to the terminal phalanges.

20 THANK YOU AND GOOD LUCK


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