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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM (ANATOMY) CHAPTER # 10(c)

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1 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM (ANATOMY) CHAPTER # 10(c)

2 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Muscles Crossing the Shoulder Joint Nine muscles cross the shoulder joint to insert on and move the humerus

3 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Muscles Crossing the Shoulder Joint Some originate off the scapula; others originate off the axial skeleton Three are prime movers of the arm Pectoralis major Latissimus dorsi Deltoid Actions include flexion, extension, adduction, abduction, and rotation of humerus

4 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Muscles Crossing the Shoulder Joint PLAY A&P Flix™: Deltoid PLAY A&P Flix™: Latissimus dorsi PLAY A&P Flix™: Pectoralis major

5 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Muscles Crossing the Shoulder Joint Four muscles are rotator cuff muscles Supraspinatus Infraspinatus Teres minor Subscapularis Reinforce the capsule of the shoulder Act as synergists and fixators Two additional muscles are synergists: coracobrachialis and teres major

6 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Muscles Crossing the Shoulder Joint PLAY A&P Flix™: Movement from the rotator cuff muscles (a) PLAY A&P Flix™: Muscles that cross the glenohumeral joint PLAY A&P Flix™: Movement from the rotator cuff muscles (b) PLAY A&P Flix™: Teres Major

7 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Rotator Cuff Anatomy and Function PLAY A&P Flix™: Supraspinatus PLAY A&P Flix™: Subscapularis PLAY A&P Flix™: Infraspinatus PLAY A&P Flix™: Teres minor PLAY A&P Flix™: Rotator cuff muscles

8 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 10.14a Clavicle Deltoid Sternum Pectoralis major Lateral head Long head Medial head Coracobrachialis Triceps brachii: Biceps brachii Brachialis Brachioradialis (a) Anterior view

9 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Rotator Cuff Anatomy and Function PLAY A&P Flix™: Axial muscles of the glenohumeral joint (a) PLAY A&P Flix™: Scapular muscles of the glenohumeral joint (a)

10 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 10.14b Supraspinatus* Spine of scapula (b) Posterior view Deltoid (cut) Greater tubercle of humerus Infraspinatus* Teres minor* Teres major Triceps brachii: Latissimus dorsi Humerus Olecranon process of ulna Lateral head Long head Anconeus * Rotator cuff muscles

11 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Rotator Cuff Anatomy and Function PLAY A&P Flix™: Scapular muscles of the glenohumeral joint (b) PLAY A&P Flix™: Axial muscles of the glenohumeral joint (b)

12 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Table Part 1

13 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. PLAY A&P Flix™: Movement at the glenohumeral joint (a) PLAY A&P Flix™: Movement at the glenohumeral joint: An overview PLAY A&P Flix™: Movement at the glenohumeral joint (b) Movement at the Glenohumeral Joint

14 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. PLAY A&P Flix™: Muscles of the elbow joint (a) PLAY A&P Flix™: The elbow joint and forearm: An overview Muscles Crossing the Elbow Joint Anterior flexor muscles Brachialis and biceps brachii—chief forearm flexors Brachioradialis—synergist and stabilizer

15 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 10.14a Clavicle Deltoid Sternum Pectoralis major Lateral head Long head Medial head Coracobrachialis Triceps brachii: Biceps brachii Brachialis Brachioradialis (a) Anterior view

16 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Muscles Crossing the Elbow Joint PLAY A&P Flix™: Biceps brachii PLAY A&P Flix™: Muscles of the elbow joint (b) PLAY A&P Flix™: Brachialis PLAY A&P Flix™: Brachioradialis

17 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Muscles Crossing the Elbow Joint Posterior extensor muscles Triceps brachii—prime mover of forearm extension Anconeus—weak synergist

18 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 10.14b Supraspinatus* Spine of scapula (b) Posterior view Deltoid (cut) Greater tubercle of humerus Infraspinatus* Teres minor* Teres major Triceps brachii: Latissimus dorsi Humerus Olecranon process of ulna Lateral head Long head Anconeus * Rotator cuff muscles

19 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Muscles Crossing the Elbow Joint PLAY A&P Flix™: Triceps brachii PLAY A&P Flix™: Muscles of the elbow joint (c)

20 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 10.17a PLAY A&P Flix™: Movement at the elbow joint Triceps brachii Lateral head Humerus Long head Medial head (a) Brachialis Short head Long head (a) Muscles of the arm Extensors Flexors Others Posterior compartment of arm (extends elbow); innervation: radial nerve Biceps brachii Anterior compartment of arm (flexes elbow); innervation: musculocutaneous nerve

21 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Table Part 2

22 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Muscles of the Forearm Actions: movements of the wrist, hand, and fingers Most anterior muscles are flexors and insert via the flexor retinaculum Most posterior muscles are extensors and insert via the extensor retinaculum PLAY A&P Flix™: Muscles that act on the wrist and fingers: An overview

23 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. PLAY A&P Flix™: Muscles of the forearm (a) Muscles of the Forearm Some forearm muscles act to produce pronation and supination of the forearm

24 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Muscles of the Forearm Pronators: pronator teres and pronator quadratus Supinator: a synergist with the biceps brachii PLAY A&P Flix™: Pronator teres PLAY A&P Flix™: Muscles of the forearm (c) PLAY A&P Flix™: Muscles of the forearm (b) PLAY A&P Flix™: Supinator

25 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Muscles of the Forearm: Anterior Compartment Flexors Flexor carpi radialis Palmaris longus Flexor carpi ulnaris Flexor digitorum muscles (superficialis and profundus) Flexor pollicis longus PLAY A&P Flix™: Carpal tunnel

26 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 10.15a Biceps brachii Tendon of biceps brachii Pronator teres Brachioradialis Extensor carpi radialis longus Flexor pollicis longus Pronator quadratus Flexor retinaculum Medial head of triceps brachii Medial epicondyle of humerus Flexor carpi radialis Palmar aponeurosis Superficial transverse ligament of palm Palmaris longus Flexor carpi ulnaris Flexor digitorum superficialis (a)

27 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Muscles of the Forearm: Anterior Compartment PLAY A&P Flix™: Flexor carpi ulnaris PLAY A&P Flix™: Flexor carpi radialis PLAY A&P Flix™: Anterior Muscles of the wrist and fingers (b) PLAY A&P Flix™: Flexor digitorum superificalis

28 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 10.15c Supinator Tendon of flexor carpi ulnaris (cut) Tendon of flexor digitorum profundus Flexor pollicis longus Thenar muscles of thumb Tendon of flexor pollicis longus Lumbricals Tendon of flexor digitorum superficialis (cut) Pronator quadratus Flexor digitorum profundus (c)

29 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Muscles of the Forearm: Anterior Compartment PLAY A&P Flix™: Anterior Muscles of the wrist and fingers (a)

30 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Muscles of the Forearm: Posterior Compartment Extensors Extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis Extensor digitorum Extensor carpi ulnaris Extensor pollicis brevis and longus Extensor indicis Abductor pollicis longus

31 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 10.16a Insertion of triceps brachii Anconeus Flexor carpi ulnaris Extensor carpi ulnaris Extensor digiti minimi Extensor indicis Tendons of extensor carpi radialis brevis and longus Extensor expansion (a) Extensor pollicis longus Extensor pollicis brevis Abductor pollicis longus Extensor digitorum Extensor carpi radialis brevis Extensor carpi radialis longus Brachioradialis Tendons of extensor digitorum

32 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Muscles of the Forearm: Posterior Compartment PLAY A&P Flix™: Extensor carpi radialis longus PLAY A&P Flix™: Posterior Muscles of the wrist and fingers (b) PLAY A&P Flix™: Extensor carpi radialis brevis PLAY A&P Flix™: Extensor digitorum PLAY A&P Flix™: Extensor carpi ulnaris(c)

33 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 10.16b Olecranon process of ulna Interossei Anconeus Supinator Abductor pollicis longus Extensor pollicis longus Extensor pollicis brevis Extensor indicis (b)

34 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Muscles of the Forearm: Posterior Compartment PLAY A&P Flix™: Posterior Muscles of the wrist and fingers (a)

35 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Movements of the Wrist and Fingers Flexion and extension Abduction and adduction PLAY A&P Flix™: Movements of the wrist and fingers (b) PLAY A&P Flix™: Movements of the wrist and fingers (a)

36 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 10.17b Extensors Flexors Others (b) Flexors Extensors Ulna Posterior compartment of forearm (extends wrist and fingers); innervation: radial nerve Others Radius Pronator teres Brachioradialis (elbow flexor) Abductor pollicis longus (b) Muscles of the forearm Anterior compartment of forearm (flexes wrist and fingers); innervation: median or ulnar nerve

37 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure Part 3

38 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Intrinsic Muscles of the Hand Small weak muscles Lie entirely within the palm of the hand Control precise movements of metacarpals and fingers (e.g., threading a needle) Abductors and adductors of the fingers Produce opposition—move the thumb toward the little finger

39 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Finger and Thumb Movements Flexion Thumb—bends medially along the palm Fingers—bend anteriorly Extension Thumb—points laterally Fingers—move posteriorly

40 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Intrinsic Muscles of the Hand Three groups Thenar eminence (ball of the thumb) Hypothenar eminence (ball of the little finger) Each of the above groups has a flexor, an abductor, and an opponens muscle Midpalmar muscles: lumbricals and palmar and dorsal interossei extend the fingers Interossei muscles also abduct and adduct the fingers

41 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 10.18a Flexor digitorum profundus Tendons of: Flexor digitorum superficialis Third lumbrical Fourth lumbrical Opponens digiti minimi Flexor digiti minimi brevis Abductor digiti minimi Pisiform bone Flexor carpi ulnaris tendon Flexor digitorum superficialis tendons Flexor pollicis longus Flexor carpi radialis Palmaris longus Flexor retinaculum Abductor pollicis longus Opponens pollicis Abductor pollicis brevis Flexor pollicis brevis Adductor pollicis Dorsal interossei First lumbrical Second lumbrical Fibrous sheath (a) First superficial layer Tendons of:

42 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 10.18b Flexor digitorum profundus tendon Flexor digitorum superficialis tendon Palmar interossei Opponens digiti minimi Flexor digiti minimi brevis (cut) Abductor digiti minimi (cut) Flexor pollicis longus tendon Opponens pollicis Abductor pollicis brevis Flexor pollicis brevis Adductor pollicis Dorsal interossei (b) Second layer

43 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 10.18c Palmar interossei (c) Palmar interossei (isolated)

44 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 10.18d Dorsal interossei (d) Dorsal interossei (isolated)

45 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Intrinsic Muscles of the Hand PLAY Animation: Rotatable hand


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