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Inorganic chemical nomenclature (textbook: 12 - 25)

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Presentation on theme: "Inorganic chemical nomenclature (textbook: 12 - 25)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Inorganic chemical nomenclature (textbook: )

2 METALS NONMETALS SEMIMETALS Alkali metals Alkaline earth metals Chalcogens Halogens Noble gases

3

4 Electronegativity Oxidation state (oxidation number) Valence Ionic charge - "real electric charge" cations: Na + Ca 2+ Al 3+ anions: Cl - SO 4 2-

5 Chemical formulas We have several types of formulas: (according to the information they contain) 1) Empirical formula 2) Molecular formula 3) "Condensed formula" 4) Structural formula 5) Structural formula showing unshared electrons

6 1) EMPIRICAL - relative number of each type of atom (ratio of the elements) - e.g. H 2 SO 4 Al 2 O 3 CH 2 O 2) MOLECULAR - real number of atoms in the molecule - e.g. H 2 SO 4 Al 2 O 3 C 6 H 12 O 6 3) "CONDENSED" (functional groups) - characteristic groups of atoms (=functional groups) - e.g. Mg(OH) 2 (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 K 4 [Fe(CN) 6 ]

7 4) STRUCTURAL - types and arrangement of bonds between atoms 5) STRUCTURAL with unshared electrons - shows also unshared (non-bonding) electron pairs

8 Latin nomenclature (INN) INN = International Nonproprietary Names - intended to be used worldwide for the identification of a given pharmaceutical substance - free of any protection of rights of ownership - recommendations come from World Health Organization (WHO)

9 "Drug names" TRADE NAME - registered to pharmaceutical company - protection of rights of ownership CHEMICAL NAME - long, difficult GENERIC NAME (INN) – "free" e.g. simvastatinum - trade names in the Czech republic: Zocor, Simgal, Simvor, Vasilip, Simvastatin AL, APO-Simva, statinum  drug for lowering cholesterol

10 Symbols of chemical elements - derived from LATIN name K Kalium NNitrogeniumNaNatrium BBorumBrBromum AgArgentumArArgonum As Arsenum English name > symbol ? lead L Le Plumbum Pb

11 Trip to linguistics (morphology) PREFIX STEM of the wordSUFFIX (ending) hypo - chlor - ate Latin is a highly inflected language. nouns - six cases - many declensions 1. nominativeNatrium 2. genitiveNatrii 3. dativeNatrio 4. accusativeNatrium 5. vocativeNatrium 6. ablativeNatrio

12 Genitive forms Plumbum - - > Plumbi Natrium - - >Natrii element names - usual ending:- UM Lithium, Ferrum, Cuprum, Calcium genitive form- I Lithii, Ferri, Cupri, Calcii

13 Elements with different names in English and in Latin !!! Sbantimony Stibium Cucopper Cuprum Augold Aurum Feiron Ferrum Pblead Plumbum Hgmercury Hydrargyrum Ninickel Niccolum Kpotassium Kalium Sisilicon Silicium AgsilverArgentum NasodiumNatrium SntinStannum WtungstenWolframium

14 Numerical prefixes 1 mono11undeca 2di12dodeca 3tri13trideca 4tetra 5penta20eicosa 6hexa 100hecta 7hepta 8octa1/2hemi 9nona 3/2sesqui 10deca

15 Names of oxides 1) Oxides of NONMETALS - numerical prefixes COcarbon monoxide CO 2 carbon dioxide SO 2 sulfur dioxide SO 3 sulfur trioxide As 2 O 3 diarsenic trioxide As 2 O 5 diarsenic pentoxide

16 Names of oxides 1) Oxides of METALS Only one oxid. state: CaO calcium oxide Al 2 O 3 aluminum oxide More oxid. states: FeOiron (II) oxide Fe 2 O 3 iron (III) oxide

17 Names of oxides (INN) Genitive form of the name for the element + OXIDUM (numerical prefixes are employed) K 2 ODikalii oxidum CaOCalcii oxidum Al 2 O 3 Dialuminii trioxidum SnO 2 Stanni dioxidum Sb 2 O 5 Distibii pentaoxidum SO 3 Sulfuris trioxidum ! ( sulfur, -is ) 3 rd decl.

18 Names of peroxides element + PEROXIDE H 2 O 2 hydrogen peroxide Na 2 O 2 sodium peroxide BaO 2 barium peroxide

19 Names of peroxides (INN) Genitive form of the name for the element + PEROXIDUM H 2 O 2 Hydrogenii peroxidum Na 2 O 2 Natrii peroxidum BaO 2 Barii peroxidum

20 Names of hydroxides element + HYDROXIDE ( if element forms more hydroxides – specify it ! ) NaOHsodium hydroxide Ca(OH) 2 calcium hydroxide Mg(OH) 2 magnesium hydroxide Fe(OH) 2 iron (II) hydroxide Fe(OH) 3 iron (III) hydroxide

21 Names of hydroxides (INN) Genitive form of the name for element + HYDROXIDUM ( numerical prefix: if element forms more hydroxides ) NaOHNatrii hydroxidum Ca(OH) 2 Calcii hydroxidum Mg(OH) 2 Magnesii hydroxidum Fe(OH) 2 Ferri dihydroxidum Fe(OH) 3 Ferri trihydroxidum

22 Names of acids 1. Acids not containing oxygen ("binary acids") HYDRO.... -IC ACID or HYDROGEN.... -IDE HFhydrofluoric acid HClhydrochloric acid HBrhydrobromic acid HIhydroiodic acid H 2 Shydrogen sulfide HCNhydrogen cyanide

23 2. Oxyacids How many oxyacids can the element form ? a) only one.... -IC ACID H 2 CO 3 carbonic acid H 3 BO 3 boric acid H 2 SiO 3 silicic acid H 2 MoO 4 molybdic acid !!!

24 a) two Lower oxidation n OUS ACID Higher oxidation n IC ACID H 2 SO 3 sulfurous acid H 2 SO 4 sulfuric acid HNO 2 nitrous acid HNO 3 nitric acid H 3 PO 3 phosphorous acid H 3 PO 4 phosphoric acid

25 a) more than two the halogensCl, Br, I HClO hypochlorous acid HClO 2 chlorous acid HClO 3 chloric acid HClO 4 perchloric acid The same way: "traditional" H 2 MnO 4 manganic acid HMnO 4 permanganic acid

26 Names of acids (INN) 1. Acids not containing oxygen ("binary acids") ACIDUM HYDRO …… -ICUM HFAcidum hydrofluoricum HClAcidum hydrochloricum HBrAcidum hydrobromicum HIAcidum hydroiodicum H 2 SAcidum hydrosulfuricum HCNAcidum hydrocyanicum

27 2. Oxyacids How many oxyacids can the element form ? a) only one ACIDUM ……-ICUM H 2 CO 3 Acidum carbonicum H 3 BO 3 Acidum boricum H 2 SiO 3 Acidum silicicum H 2 MoO 4 Acidum molybdaenicum

28 a) two Lower oxidation n. ACIDUM ……-OSUM Higher oxidation n. ACIDUM ……-ICUM H 2 SO 3 Acidum sulfurosum H 2 SO 4 Acidum sulfuricum HNO 2 Acidum nitrosum HNO 3 Acidum nitricum H 3 PO 3 Acidum phosphorosum H 3 PO 4 Acidum phosphoricum

29 a) more than two the halogensCl, Br, I HClO Acidum hypochlorosum HClO 2 Acidum chlorosum HClO 3 Acidum chloricum HClO 4 Acidum hyperchloricum ( perchloricum ) The same way: "traditional" H 2 MnO 4 Acidum manganicum HMnO 4 Acidum hypermanganicum

30 Names of salts 1. Salts of binary acids(acids not containing oxygen) cation + ……- IDE more oxidation states of cation: specify it ! e.g. iron (II) NaClsodium chloride AgIsilver iodide KCNpotassium cyanide ZnSzinc sulfide

31 Common elements with two oxidation states in cations Fe II iron (II) ferrous Fe III iron (III) ferric Cu I copper (I) cuprous Cu II copper (II) cupric Hg I mercury (I) mercurous Hg II mercury (II) mercuric Au I gold (I) Au III gold (III) Sn II tin (II) stannous Sn IV tin (IV) stannic Tl I thallium (I) Tl III thallium (III) Pb II lead (II) plumbous Pb IV lead (IV) plumbic

32 Salts of elements with more oxidation states FeCl 2 iron (II) chloride FeCl 3 iron (III) chloride CuIcopper (I) iodide CuI 2 copper (II) iodide Hg 2 Cl 2 mercury (I) chloride HgCl 2 mercury (II) chloride

33 2. Salts of oxyacids cation + … -ATE ( if acid -ic ) … - ITE ( if acid -ous ) according to acid also: HYPO- PER- Na 2 CO 3 sodium carbonate K 2 SO 3 potassium sulfite NaClOsodium hypochlorite FeSO 4 iron (II) sulfate NH 4 BrO 2 Ammonium bromite

34 Names of salts (INN) 1. Salts of binary acids(acids not containing oxygen) genitive form of the cation + ……- IDUM more oxidation states of cation: lower: -osi higher-i NaClNatrii chloridum AgIArgenti iodidum KCNKalii cyanidum ZnSZinci sulfuridum !!!

35 Common elements with two oxidation states in cations Fe II FerrosiFe III Ferri Cu I CuprosiCu II Cupri Hg I HydrargyrosiHg II Hydrargyri Au I AurosiAu III Auri Sn II StannosiSn IV Stanni Tl I ThallosiTl III Thallii

36 Salts of elements with more oxidation states FeCl 2 Ferrosi chloridum FeCl 3 Ferri chloridum CuICuprosi iodidum CuI 2 Cupri iodidum Hg 2 Cl 2 Hydrargyrosi chloridum HgCl 2 Hydrargyri chloridum

37 2. Salts of oxyacids cation in genitive + … -AS ( if acid -icum ) ( -osi, -i ) … - IS( if acid -osum ) according to acid also: HYPO- HYPER- Na 2 CO 3 Natrii carbonas K 2 SO 3 Kalii sulfis NaClONatrii hypochloris FeSO 4 Ferrosi sulfas NH 4 BrO 2 Ammonii bromis

38 Names of hydrogensalts HYDROGEN (numerical prefix if needed) NaHS sodium hydrogen sulfide NaHCO 3 sodium hydrogen carbonate KHSO 3 potassium hydrogen sulfite Na 3 PO 4 sodium phosphate Na 2 HPO 4 sodium hydrogen phosphate NaH 2 PO 4 sodium dihydrogen phosphate

39 Names of hydrogensalts (INN) prefix: HYDROGENO- (numerical prefix if needed) NaHS Natrii hydrogenosulfuridum NaHCO 3 Natrii hydrogenocarbonas KHSO 3 Kalii hydrogenosulfis Na 3 PO 4 Natrii phosphas Na 2 HPO 4 Natrii hydrogenophosphas NaH 2 PO 4 Natrii dihydrogenophosphas

40 Names of basic salts Mg(OH)ClMagnesium chloride hydroxide Cd(OH)ICadmium iodide hydroxide Al(OH)CO 3 Aluminum carbonate hydroxide

41 Names of basic salts (INN) prefix: SUB- Mg(OH)ClMagnesii subchloridum Cd(OH)ICadmii subiodidum Al(OH)CO 3 Aluminii subcarbonas

42 Names of hydrates ….. HYDRATE numerical prefix CuSO 4. 5 H 2 O copper (II) sulfate pentahydrate MgCl 2. 6 H 2 O magnesium chloride hexahydrate CaSO 4. 1/2 H 2 O calcium sulfate hemihydrate anhydrous: (Only if you want to point out this.) Na 2 CO 3 sodium carbonate anhydrous

43 Names of hydrates (INN) ….. HYDRICUS ( -UM) numerical prefix CuSO 4. 5 H 2 O Cupri sulfas pentahydricus MgCl 2. 6 H 2 O Magnesii chloridum hexahydricum CaSO 4. 1/2 H 2 O Calcii sulfas hemihydricus anhydrous: (Only if you want to point out this.) Na 2 CO 3 Natrii carbonas anhydricus

44 Names of polyacids and their salts (Number of central atoms is expressed by numerical prefix) H 2 B 4 O 7 tetraboric acid Na 2 B 4 O 7 sodium tetraborate H 2 Cr 2 O 7 dichromic acid K 2 Cr 2 O 7 potassium dichromate

45 Names of polyacids and their salts (INN) (Number of central atoms is expressed by numerical prefix) H 2 B 4 O 7 Acidum tetraboricum Na 2 B 4 O 7 Natrii tetraboras H 2 Cr 2 O 7 Acidum dichromicum K 2 Cr 2 O 7 Kalii dichromas

46 "Functional replacement" derivatives of oxyacids Peroxyacids -O-H group replaced by -O-O-H (HOO)NO 2 peroxynitric acid (HOO) 2 CO diperoxycarbonic acid Thioacids oxygen is replaced by sulfur ( -O-H replaced by -S-H ) =O replaced by =S H 2 S 2 O 3 thiosulfuric acid H 2 CS 3 trithiocarbonic acid

47 "Functional replacement" derivatives of oxyacids (INN) Peroxyacids -O-H group replaced by -O-O-H (HOO)NO 2 Acidum peroxonitricum (HOO) 2 CO Acidum diperoxocarbonicum Thioacids oxygen is replaced by sulfur ( -O-H replaced by -S-H ) =O replaced by =S H 2 S 2 O 3 Acidum thiosulfuricum H 2 CS 3 Acidum trithiocarbonicum

48 Double salts (salts containing more than one cation or anion) AlK(SO 4 ) 2 Aluminum potassium sulfate CaMg(CO 3 ) 2 Calcium magnesium carbonate ZnBrF Zinc bromide fluoride Cu 3 (CO 3 ) 2 F 2 Copper (II) carbonate fluoride

49 Double salts (INN) (salts containing more than one cation or anion) AlK(SO 4 ) 2 Aluminii kalii sulfas CaMg(CO 3 ) 2 Calcii magnesii carbonas ZnBrF Zinci bromidum fluoridum Cu 3 (CO 3 ) 2 F 2 Cupri carbonas fluoridum


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