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Naming Chemical Compounds

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Presentation on theme: "Naming Chemical Compounds"— Presentation transcript:

1 Naming Chemical Compounds

2 Binary Ionic Compounds
Binary = 2 types of elements Ionic = made of ions Compound = atoms bonded together

3 Ionic Compounds Positive ions are attracted to Negative ions
FORMULA UNIT Cation always comes first, then anion

4 Elemental anions When an element becomes an anion, it starts to end in –ide Fluoride Chloride Bromide Oxide Sulfide Nitride Phosphide

5 Type I The cation has a predictable charge Alkali Metals +1
Alkaline Earth Metals +2 Group 3A +3 Silver Ag+ Zinc Zn2+

6 Type II Fe2+ Fe3+ Cu+ Cu2+ The cation has a variable charge
All Transition metals except for Ag and Zn (for our purposes) The name will have a roman numeral to denote the CHARGE on the cation Fe2+ Fe3+ Cu+ Cu2+ Iron(II) Iron(III) Copper(I) Copper(II) Ferrous Ferric Cuprous Cupric

7 Naming ionic compouds (Type I and II)
First name cation Just the name of element if Type I Name of element and roman numeral with charge on cation if Type II Then name anion Elemental anions end in “–ide” When determining the formula, remember “swap ‘n’ drop”

8 Name the following: Na3N MgCl2 Al2O3 CuCl CuCl2 PbBr4 Sodium nitride
Magnesium chloride Aluminum oxide Copper(I) chloride Copper(II) chloride Lead(IV) bromide

9 Determine the formula of the following
Aluminum chloride Magnesium Oxide Sodium nitride Calcium chloride Copper(I) sulfide Lead (II) bromide Iron(III) oxide AlCl3 MgO Na3N CaCl2 Cu2S PbBr2 Fe2O3

10 Polyatomic Ions Many anions are not just ions of elements.
Polyatomic Ions = many atomed particle with an overall charge Mostly nonmetals bonded to Oxygens

11 Polyatomic Ion Naming Main polyatomic ion One fewer oxygens
Ends in “–ate” Example: Chlorate ClO3- One fewer oxygens Ends in “-ite” Example: Chlorite ClO2- Even fewer oxygens Hypo = under Example: Hypochlorite ClO- More oxygens than main ion Hyper = over, shortened to “per” Example: Perchlorate ClO4-

12 Common Polyatomic Ions
NO2- Nitrite NO3- Nitrate SO32- Sulfite SO42- Sulfate PO43- Phosphate PO33- Phosphite

13 Common Polyatomic Ions
Hydrogen can attach to the polyatomic ions as H+ This adds an H and reduces the overall charge by 1 PO43- Phosphate HPO42- Hydrogen Phosphate H2PO41- Dihydrogen Phosphate CO32- Carbonate HCO31- Hydrogen carbonate (bicarbonate)

14 Name these compounds with PAIs
AlPO4 Cu(NO3)2 Na2SO4 NaHCO3 Mg3(PO4)2 Aluminum phosphate Copper(II) nitrate Sodium sulfate Sodium bicarbonate Magnesium Phosphate

15 Molecular Compounds Molecular compounds are not bonded by positive and negative ions They SHARE electrons Made of two non-metals Cannot predict or explain charges (no charges, because not LOSING or GAINING electrons – SHARING)

16 Naming Molecular Compounds (Type III)
Because there is no way to neutralize the compounds (like for ions) we must determine how many there are another way: Use PREFIXES

17 How to tell if it’s Type III
Check the FIRST element – is it a non-metal? If YES, it’s a Type III Name the first element as the element Name the second element ending in “-ide”

18 Prefixes 1 Mono 2 Di 3 Tri 4 Tetra 5 Penta 6 Hexa 7 Hepta 8 Octa 9
10 Mono Di Tri Tetra Penta Hexa Hepta Octa Nona Deca

19 Using prefixes If there is only one of the first element, you may omit the “mono” You may not omit any other prefixes The more electronegative element goes last (upper right hand corner) F, O, N, Cl,

20 Name the following PCl3 CO2 NO N2O4 N2F5 OF2 Phosphorus trichloride
Carbon dioxide Nitrogen monoxide Dinitrogen tetroxide Dinitrogen pentafluoride Oxygen difluoride

21 Naming Practice! For each of the following compounds, determine whether it is type I, II, or III.
FeCl3 NaCl Cu(OH)2 N2O BaSO4 PO5 (NH4)CO3 SnBr2

22 Naming Practice! For each of the following compounds, determine the CHARGE on the cation (+1, +2, +3, or +4) 3 2 4 FeCl3 Cu(OH)2 Cr2S3 NiS Pb(NO3)2 SnCl4

23 Acids All acids have the H+ ion in them as the cation.
All acids have “acid” in their name Consider Hydrochloric Acid HCl

24 Naming Acids If the anion DOES NOT CONTAIN OXYGEN: Examples
Prefix hydro- Root name of anion element Suffix –ic Examples HF H2S Hydrofluoric Acid Hydrosulfuric Acid Hydrooxygenic acid

25 Naming Acids If the anion CONTAINS OXYGEN (ie: is a polyatomic ion)
Root name of the PAI If anion ends in -ate, acid ends in –ic If anion ends in –ite, acid ends in –ous

26 Naming Acids Examples H2SO4 H2SO3 HNO3 HNO2 HC2H3O2 Phosphoric Acid
Carbonic Acid Sulfuric Acid Sulfurous Acid Nitric Acid Nitrous Acid Acetic Acid H3PO4 H2CO3

27 Organic Molecules Carbon based Naming is based on number of carbons
Functional groups Sets of molecules attached to the carbons Naming is also based on what functional groups are where

28 Alkanes The simplest organic molecules are Alkanes.
Carbons are all single bonded to each other When not bonded to another carbon, bonded to a Hydrogen All alkanes end in -ane


30 Prefixes Note that the prefixes pertain to all types of carbon based molecules with any types of functional groups or chains Meth Eth Prop But Pent Hex Hept Oct

31 Alkenes and Alkynes A functional group can be a set of atoms, or the way they are bonded. Alkenes Carbons have double bonds between them Alkynes Carbons have triple bonds between them

32 Alkenes and Alkynes To Name All alkenes end with –ene.
All alkynes end with –yne Number the carbons in the longest chain. Carbon 1 is at the end of the chain closest to the first functional group Put the number that the bond is on, then the chain length (some name by putting the number BEFORE the functional group ending)

33 Isomer = molecule with SAME formula but DIFFERENT structure

34 Alcohols Have an –OH group attached
Name the carbon chain (prefix and bond) End in –ol Indicate which carbon the –OH is on 2-propanol 1-Butanol 3-Octenol

35 What are the formulas for these alcohols?

36 Alcohols Some alcohols have common names like glycerol

37 Branched Hydrocarbons
The longest continuous chain of carbon atoms gives the root name/prefix. Substituent is named by the number of carbons. Specify location of substituent by numbering carbon atoms in longest chain. Substituent often referred to as R or R’ (for second substituent)

38 Substituent often referred to as R or R’ (for second substituent)
If more than one alkyl group, use prefix di, tri, etc. to alkyl name Substituents listed in alphabetical order (disregarding prefix)

39 Branched Hydrocarbon Substituent Alkyl groups

40 What is the name of the compound?
Hints Number Carbon chain from on side closest to first alkyl group Single carbon branch called methyl, triple carbon group called propyl More than one branch, use prefixes di-, tri-, etc. 4 ethyl,5 methyl heptane 2,4 dimethyl hexane

41 Tricky ones!!! Each END of a line is a Carbon atom. No H’s are indicated, but they are assumed See if you can name these.

42 Halohydrocarbons Functional group is a halogen (X = F, Cl, Br, I)
General Formula R – X Naming Select longest chain containing halogen Number so that C with halogen gets lowest number

43 Ethers Functional group General Formula Naming - O – R – O – R’
Name the R group as an alkyl Name the R’ group as an alkyl End in ether

44 Aldehydes Functional group General Formula Naming - C – H R – C – H
Name the R group Change the ending to -al || O || O

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