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SECTION 7.1 CHEMICAL NAMES AND FORMULAS Honors Chemistry.

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Presentation on theme: "SECTION 7.1 CHEMICAL NAMES AND FORMULAS Honors Chemistry."— Presentation transcript:

1 SECTION 7.1 CHEMICAL NAMES AND FORMULAS Honors Chemistry

2 Significance of a Chemical Formula A chemical formula indicates the relative number of atoms of each kind in a chemical compound. For a molecular compound, the chemical formula reveals the number of atoms of each element contained in a single molecule of the compound.  example: octane — C 8 H 18 The subscript after the C indicates that there are 8 carbon atoms in the molecule. The subscript after the H indicates that there are 18 hydrogen atoms in the molecule.

3 Significance of a Chemical Formula The chemical formula for an ionic compound represents one formula unit—the simplest ratio of the compound’s positive ions (cations) and its negative ions (anions).  example: aluminum sulfate — Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3  Parentheses surround the polyatomic ion to identify it as a unit. The subscript 3 refers to the unit. Note also that there is no subscript for sulfur: when there is no subscript next to an atom, the subscript is understood to be 1.

4 Reading Chemical Formulas Video

5 Monatomic Ions Many main-group elements can lose or gain electrons to form ions. Ions formed form a single atom are known as monatomic ions.  example: To gain a noble-gas electron configuration, nitrogen gains three electrons to form N 3– ions. Some main-group elements tend to form covalent bonds instead of forming ions.  examples: carbon and silicon

6 Monatomic Ions Naming Monatomic Ions Monatomic cations are identified simply by the element’s name.  examples:  K + is called the potassium cation  Mg 2+ is called the magnesium cation For monatomic anions, the ending of the element’s name is dropped, and the ending -ide is added to the root name.  examples:  F – is called the fluoride anion  N 3– is called the nitride anion

7 Common Monatomic Ions

8 Monatomic Charges Main Group Elements

9 Common Monatomic Ions d-Block and Group 14

10 Common Monatomic Ions Video

11 Naming Binary Compounds Binary Compounds contain only 2 elements. Binary Compounds ALWAYS end in –ide Exceptions  Compounds with hydroxide - OH -  Compounds with cyanide – CN -  Compounds with peroxide – O 2 2-

12 Binary Ionic Compounds In a binary ionic compound, the total numbers of positive charges and negative charges must be equal. The formula for a binary ionic compound can be written given the identities of the compound’s ions.  example: magnesium bromide Ions combined: Mg 2+, Br –, Br – Chemical formula: MgBr 2

13 Binary Ionic Compounds A general rule to use when determining the formula for a binary ionic compound is “crossing over” to balance charges between ions.  example: aluminum oxide 1) Write the symbols for the ions. Al 3+ O 2– Cross over the charges by using the absolute value of each ion’s charge as the subscript for the other ion.

14 Ionic Compounds

15 Practice Write formulas for the following:  Magnesium and Iodine  Potassium and sulfur  Aluminum and chlorine  Zinc and bromine  Cesium and sulfur  Strontium and oxygen  Calcium and Nitrogen

16 Naming Ionic Compounds Video

17 Practice Name the following:  BaF 2  CaO  AgF  CdO  K 3 N  NaI  AlBr 3

18 Naming Ionic Compounds The Stock System of Nomenclature Some elements such as iron, form two or more cations with different charges. To distinguish the ions formed by such elements, scientists use the Stock system of nomenclature. The system uses a Roman numeral to indicate an ion’s charge.  examples:Fe 2+ iron(II) Fe 3+ iron(III)

19 Naming Compounds Using the Stock System Video

20 Naming Compounds using the Classical System Ion with the higher charge uses –ic suffix. Ion with the lower charge uses the –ous suffix.  Examples:  CuCl 2 – cupric chloride  CuCl – cuprous chloride  SnO 2 – stannic oxide  SnO – stannous oxide

21 Practice Write the formula and name for the following:  Cu +, O 2-  Fe 3+, S 2-  Cu 2+, Cl -  Sn 2+, Cl -  Hg 2+, O 2-  Sn 4+, S 2-  V 2+, F -  V 3+, Br -

22 Polyatomic Ions Many common polyatomic ions are oxyanions—polyatomic ions that contain oxygen. Some elements can combine with oxygen to form more than one type of oxyanion but always with the same charge.  example: nitrogen can form: The name of the ion with the greater number of oxygen atoms ends in -ate. The name of the ion with the smaller number of oxygen atoms ends in -ite.

23 Polyatomic Ions Some elements can form more than two types of oxyanions.  example: chlorine can form: In this case, an anion that has one fewer oxygen atom than the -ite anion has is given the prefix hypo-. An anion that has one more oxygen atom than the - ate anion has is given the prefix per-.

24 Polyatomic Ions

25 Naming Ternary Compounds (with Polyatomic Ions) Name the cation Name the anion The name of the polyatomic remains unchanged Name the salt  Example - K 2 CO 3  Example - NH 4 OH

26 Understanding Formulas for Polyatomic Ionic Compounds

27 Naming Compounds Containing Polyatomic Ions Video

28 Practice Name the following:  Ag 2 S  NaMnO 4  Ba(OH) 2  Fe(ClO) 2  NH 4 NO 3  Ca(NO 3 ) 2  K 2 SO 3  NaCH 3 COO

29 Practice Write formulas for the following:  Copper (II) nitrate  Potassium iodide  Sodium hydroxide  Ammonium acetate  Calcium carbonate  Potassium permanganate  Sodium sulfate  Iron (III) nitrate

30 Naming Binary Molecular Compounds Unlike ionic compounds, molecular compounds are composed of individual covalently bonded units, or molecules. As with ionic compounds, there is also a Stock system for naming molecular compounds. The old system of naming molecular compounds is based on the use of prefixes.  examples:CCl 4 — carbon tetrachloride (tetra- = 4) CO — carbon monoxide (mon- = 1) CO 2 — carbon dioxide (di- = 2)

31 Prefixes for Naming Covalent Compounds

32 Naming Binary Molecular Compounds Put the less electronegative element first. This element only has a prefix if there is more than one of the element. Name the second element – prefix/root/ide Drop o or a at the end of the prefix if the element begins with a vowel.  Example – monoxide  Example – VO 5 – vanadium pentoxide

33 Naming Compounds Using Numerical Prefixes Video

34 Naming Molecular Compounds Using the Stock System Write the names of the elements. After the first element add the apparent charge in parentheses written as a Roman Numeral.  Example:  CO – carbon monoxide or carbon (II) oxide  CO 2 – carbon dioxide or carbon (IV) oxide  P 2 O 3 – diphosphorous trioxide or phosphorous (III) oxide

35 Practice Name the following with prefixes and using the Stock System:  PF 5  XeF 4  CCl 4

36 Practice Write the formulas for the following:  Carbon dioxide  Dinitrogen pentoxide  Sulfur hexafluoride

37 Covalent-Network Compounds Some covalent compounds do not consist of individual molecules. Instead, each atom is joined to all its neighbors in a covalently bonded, three-dimensional network. Subscripts in a formula for covalent-network compound indicate smallest whole-number ratios of the atoms in the compound.  examples:SiC, silicon carbide SiO 2, silicon dioxide Si 3 N 4, trisilicon tetranitride.

38 Acids and Salts An acid is a certain type of molecular compound. Generally we refer to solutions with available hydrogen ions (H + ) as acids. Most acids used in the laboratory are either binary acids or oxyacids.  Binary acids are acids that consist of two elements, usually hydrogen and a halogen.  Oxyacids are acids that contain hydrogen, oxygen, and a third element (usually a nonmetal).

39 Common Acids

40 Acids and Salts In the laboratory, the term acid usually refers to a solution in water of an acid compound rather than the acid itself.  example: hydrochloric acid refers to a water solution of the molecular compound hydrogen chloride, HCl Many polyatomic ions are produced by the loss of hydrogen ions from oxyacids.  examples: sulfuric acidH 2 SO 4 sulfate nitric acidHNO 3 nitrate phosphoric acidH 3 PO 4 phosphate

41 Acids and Salts An ionic compound composed of a cation and the anion from an acid is often referred to as a salt.  examples:  Table salt, NaCl, contains the anion from hydrochloric acid, HCl.  Calcium sulfate, CaSO 4, is a salt containing the anion from sulfuric acid, H 2 SO 4.  The bicarbonate ion,, comes from carbonic acid, H 2 CO 3.

42 Naming Acids Binary acids are named as follows:  Use prefix hydro-  End name in –ic  Example – HCl – hydrochloric acid HBr – hydrobromic acid Oxyacids are named as follows:  Name of polyatomic  -ic suffix if more oxygens (-ate ending)  - ous suffix if less oxygens (-ite ending) Example – H 2 SO 4 (from sulfate) – sulfuric acid Example – H 2 SO 3 (from sulfite) – sulfurous acid

43 Naming Binary Acids Video

44 Naming Oxyacids Video

45 Salt Video

46 Prefixes and Suffixes for Oxyanions and Related Acids Video

47 Compound’s Formula Metal/Nonmetal (2 elements) 2 Nonmetals IONIC COVALENT (Molecular Compounds) Cation (+) stays the same – use Roman Numeral if more than 1 charge possible Anion (-) changes to an –ide ending First nonmetal stays the same and uses prefixes if more than one Second nonmetal changes to an –ide ending and gets a prefix Metal/Polyatom ic (3 elements) Cation (+) stays the same – use Roman Numeral if more than 1 charge possible Polyatomic stays the same Polyatomic/Nonmetal (3 elements) Polyatomic stays the same Anion (-) changes to an –ide ending Uncross subscripts Check Charges

48 Compound’s Name Name has prefixes Use prefixes to write the formula for the compound COVALENT IONIC Write the symbols for each element or polyatomic Write the charges on each element or polyatomic (Roman Numeral = charge) Cross over |charges| Reduce subscripts if possible


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