Presentation on theme: "1. Define important words in this chapter"— Presentation transcript:
1 1. Define important words in this chapter active listeninga way of communicating that involves giving a person your full attention while he is speaking and encouraging him to give information and clarify ideas; includes nonverbal communication.barriera block or an obstacle.body languageall of the conscious or unconscious messages your body sends as you communicate, such as facial expressions, shrugging your shoulders, and wringing your hands.care conferencea meeting to share and gather information about residents in order to develop a care plan.
2 1. Define important words in this chapter care plana written plan for each resident created by the nurse; outlines the steps taken by the staff to help the resident reach his or her goals.chartingthe act of noting care and observations; documenting.codein health care, an emergent medical situation in which specially-trained responders provide resuscitative measures to a person.
3 1. Define important words in this chapter code statusformally written status of the type and scope of care that should be provided in the event of a cardiac arrest, other catastrophic failure, or terminal illness; terms and acronyms are used to identify the care desired by the person, such as “DNR” (do not resuscitate) and “no code.”critical thinkingthe process of reasoning and analyzing in order to solve problems; for the nursing assistant, critical thinking means making good observations and promptly reporting all potential problems.culturea set of learned beliefs, values, traditions, and behaviors shared by a social, ethnic, or age group.
4 1. Define important words in this chapter edemaswelling in body tissues caused by excess fluid.incidentan accident, problem, or unexpected event during the course of care.incident reporta report documenting an incident and the response to the incident; also known as an occurrence report or event report.medical chartwritten legal record of all medical care a patient, resident, or client receives.
5 1. Define important words in this chapter Minimum Data Set (MDS)a detailed form with guidelines for assessing residents in long-term care facilities; also details what to do if resident problems are identified.nonverbal communicationcommunication without using words, such as making gestures and facial expressions.nursing processan organized method used by nurses to determine residents’ needs, plan the appropriate care to meet those needs, and evaluate how well the plan of care is working; five steps are assessment, diagnosis, planning, implementation, and evaluation.
6 1. Define important words in this chapter objective informationfactual information collected using the senses of sight, hearing, smell, and touch; also called signs.orientationa person’s awareness of person, place, and time.prefixa word part added to the beginning of a root to create a new meaning.prioritizeto place things in order of importance.
7 1. Define important words in this chapter rootthe main part of a word that gives it meaning.roundsphysical movement of staff from room to room to discuss each resident and his or her care plan.sentinel eventan unexpected occurrence involving death or serious physical or psychological injury.subjective informationinformation collected from residents, their family members and friends; information may or may not be true but is what the person reported; also called symptoms.
8 1. Define important words in this chapter suffixa word part added to the end of a root or a prefix to create a new meaning.verbal communicationcommunication involving the use of spoken or written words or sounds.vital signsmeasurements—temperature, pulse, respirations, blood pressure, pain level—that monitor the functioning of the vital organs of the body.
9 2. Explain types of communication Define the following terms:verbal communicationcommunication involving the use of spoken or written words or sounds.nonverbal communicationcommunication without using words, such as making gestures and facial expressions.
10 2. Explain types of communication Define the following terms:body languageall of the conscious or unconscious messages your body sends as you communicate, such as facial expressions, shrugging your shoulders, and wringing your hands.active listeninga way of communicating that involves giving a person your full attention while he is speaking and encouraging him to give information and clarify ideas; includes nonverbal communication.
11 2. Explain types of communication Communication is the exchange of information with others which involves sending and receiving messages. People have different roles during communication. For example, a person can be the “sender” or the “receiver.” The person who communicates first is the “sender.” The person who receives the message is the “receiver.”
13 2. Explain types of communication The process shown in Transparency 3-1 occurs over and over, with the sender and receiver switching roles during a conversation. Communicating verbally means using words. Verbal communication includes the way words are spoken or written. How the voice sounds when someone speaks is as important as the words he uses.
14 2. Explain types of communication Think about these questions:How do you feel when a teacher or supervisor sounds irritated when answering a question you have asked?Try to imagine how residents feel when nursing assistants seem annoyed in the tone of their voice.
15 2. Explain types of communication Body language has to do with all of the conscious or unconscious messages your body sends as you communicate. It includes posture, body movements, facial expressions, and gestures. It can be positive or negative.
17 2. Explain types of communication Think about this question: What signals are the two people on Transparency 3-2 sending to each other through their body language?
18 2. Explain types of communication Body language can be positive or negative.Examples of positive nonverbal communication:Smiling in a friendly mannerLeaning forward to listenWith permission, putting your hand over a resident’s hand
19 2. Explain types of communication Examples of negative nonverbal communication:Rolling your eyesCrossing your arms in front of youTapping your footPointing at someone while speaking
20 2. Explain types of communication Think about this question: Can you think of other examples of either positive or negative nonverbal communication?
21 2. Explain types of communication Remember these guidelines for good communication:Use appropriate words.Be aware of your body language.Use an acceptable tone of voice.Wait for responses and let pauses happen.Practice active listening.Use mostly facts when communicating.
22 3. Explain barriers to communication Define the following term: barrier a block or an obstacle.
23 3. Explain barriers to communication As a nursing assistant (NA), you will encounter various barriers to communication with your residents. It is important to be aware of these barriers and ways to avoid them.
25 3. Explain barriers to communication Resident does not hear, does not hear correctly, or does not understand you.Resident is difficult to understand.NA, resident, or others use words that are not understood.NA uses slang or profanity.NA uses clichés.
26 3. Explain barriers to communication Barriers to communication (cont'd.):NA responds with “why.”NA gives advice.NA asks questions that only require yes/no answers.Resident speaks a different language.NA or resident uses nonverbal communication.
27 4. List ways that cultures impact communication Define the following term: culture a set of learned beliefs, values, traditions, and behaviors shared by a social, ethnic, or age group.
28 4. List ways that cultures impact communication The following aspects of communication are influenced by culture and are important to understand when caring for residents:Eye contactTouchLanguageTouch is an important way to communicate, and there are differences among cultures and among individual personalities, in terms of how comfortable they are with touch.
29 4. List ways that cultures impact communication Examples of acceptable touch include the following:Giving residents respectful personal care, such as bathing, dressing, feeding, and shavingHugging, if the resident permits or asks for itHolding a resident’s hand when she asks you to
30 4. List ways that cultures impact communication Examples of unacceptable touch include the following:Sitting on a resident’s lap or asking a resident to sit on your lapKissing a residentHugging a resident who pulls away from youInappropriately touching or rubbing against a resident or staff member
31 4. List ways that cultures impact communication Think about this question: Can you think of other examples of acceptable and unacceptable touch?
32 4. List ways that cultures impact communication Discussion:Describe how your culture influences your own communication and use of touch.Are there are any other cultural considerations when working with residents from different cultures than your own which you can think of that would be useful in your job?
33 5. Identify the people you will communicate with in a facility There are many different people you will communicate with on the job. This is another reason why understanding communication and communicating clearly are so important.Remember that you will communicate with the following while on the job:Doctors, nurses, supervisors, and other staff membersOther departmentsResidentsFamilies and visitorsThe community
34 6. Understand basic medical terminology and abbreviations Define the following terms: edema swelling in body tissues caused by excess fluid. root the main part of a word that gives it meaning. prefix a word part added to the beginning of a root to create a new meaning. suffix a word part added to the end of a root or a prefix to create a new meaning.
35 6. Understand basic medical terminology and abbreviations In order to communicate well with other members of the care team, you need to learn medical language. You will use medical terms for specific conditions.Medical terms are made up of these word parts:rootsprefixessuffixes
36 6. Understand basic medical terminology and abbreviations A root is the main part of the word that gives it meaning. A prefix comes at the front of the word. It works with a word root to make a new term. For example, the root “scope” means an instrument to look inside. The prefix “oto” means ear. An otoscope is an instrument used to examine the ear.
37 Handout 3-1: Prefixesa, an: without, not, lack of analgesic = without pain ante: before, in front of antepartum = before delivery bi: two, twice, double bifocal = two lenses brady: slow bradycardia = slow pulse, heartbeat contra: against contraceptive = prevents pregnancy dis: apart, free from disinfected = free from microorganisms dys: bad, painful dysuria = painful urination endo: inner endoscope = instrument for examining the inside of an organ epi: on, upon, over epidermis = outer layer of skin erythro: red erythrocyte = red blood cell
38 Handout 3-1: Prefixes (cont’d.) ex: out, away from exhale = to breathe out hemi: half hemisphere = one of two parts of the brain hyper: too much, high hypertension = high blood pressure hypo: below, under hypotension = low blood pressure inter: between, within interdisciplinary = between disciplines leuk: white leukocyte = white blood cell mal: bad, illness, disorder malformed = badly made micro: small microscopic = too small for the eye to see olig: small, scant oliguria = small amount of urine patho: disease, suffering pathology = study of disease
39 Handout 3-1: Prefixes (cont’d.) per: by, through perforate = to make a hole through peri: around pericardium = sac around the heart poly: many, much polyuria = much urine post: after, behind postmortem = period after death pre: before, in front of prenatal = period before birth sub: under, beneath subcutaneous = beneath the skin supra: above, over suprapelvic = located above the pelvis tachy: swift, fast, rapid tachycardia = rapid heartbeat
40 Handout 3-2: Rootsabdomin (o): abdomen abdominal = pertaining to the abdomen aden (o): gland adenitis = inflammation of a gland angi (o): vessel angioplasty = surgical repair of a vessel using a balloon arterio: artery arteriosclerosis = hardening of artery walls arthr (o): joint arthrotomy = cut into a joint brachi (o): arm brachial = pertaining to the arm bronchi, bronch (o): bronchus bronchopneumonia = inflammation of lungs card, cardi (o): heart cardiology = study of the heart cerebr (o): cerebrum cerebrospinal = pertaining to the brain and spinal cord cephal (o): head cephalalgia = headache
41 Handout 3-2: Roots (cont’d.) chole, chol (o): bile cholecystitis = inflammation of the gall bladder colo: colon colonoscopy = examination of the large intestine or colon with a scope cost (o): rib costochondral = pertaining to a rib crani (o): skull craniotomy = cutting into the skull cyan (o): blue cyanosis = blue, gray, or purple tinge to the skin due to lack of oxygen in the blood cyst (o): bladder, cyst cystitis = inflammation of the bladder derm, derma: skin dermatitis = inflammation of the skin duoden (o): duodenum duodenal = pertaining to the duodenum, the first part of the small intestine encephal (o): brain encephalitis = inflammation of the brain gaster (o), gastro: stomach gastritis = inflammation of the stomach
42 Handout 3-2: Roots (cont’d.) geron: aged gerontology = study of the aged gluco: sweet glucometer = device used to measure blood glucose glyco, glyc: sweet glycosuria = glucose (sugar) in the urine gyneco, gyno: woman gynecology = study of diseases of the female reproductive organs hema, hemato, hemo: blood hematuria = blood in the urine hepato: liver hepatomegaly = enlargement of the liver hyster (o): uterus hysterectomy = surgical removal of the uterus ile (o), ili(o): ileum ileorrhaphy = surgical repair of the ileum laryng (o): larynx laryngectomy = excision of the larynx lymph (o): lymph lymphocyte = type of white blood cell
43 Handout 3-2: Roots (cont’d.) mamm (o): breast mammogram = x-ray of the breast mast (o): breast mastectomy = excision of the breast melan (o): black melanoma = mole or tumor, may be cancerous mening (o): meninges; membranes covering the spinal cord and brain meningitis = inflammation of the membranes of the spinal cord or brain necro: death necrotic = dead tissue nephr (o): kidney nephrectomy = removal of a kidney neur (o): nerve neuritis = inflammation of a nerve onc (o): tumor oncology = study of tumors ophthalm (o): eye ophthalmologist = eye doctor oste (o): bone osteoarthritis = disease of the joints
44 Handout 3-2: Roots (cont’d.) ot (o): ear otology = science of the ear pharyng (o): pharynx pharyngitis = inflammation of the throat, sore throat phleb (o): vein phlebitis = inflammation of a vein pneo (a): breathing tachypnea = rapid breathing pneum: air, gas, respiration pneumonia = inflammation of the lung pod (o): foot podiatrist = foot doctor proct (o): anus, rectum proctology = study of the rectum pulm (o): lung pulmonary = relating to the lungs splen (o): spleen splenomegaly = enlarged spleen stomat (o): mouth stomatitis = inflammation of mouth
45 Handout 3-2: Roots (cont’d.) therm (o): hot, heat thermoplegia = heatstroke thorac (o): chest thoracotomy = incision into chest wall thromb (o): blood clot thrombus = blood clot blocking a vessel toxic (o), tox (o): poison toxicology = study of poisons trache (o): trachea, windpipe tracheostomy = incision to make an artificial airway urethr (o): urethra urethritis = inflammation of urethra
46 6. Understand basic medical terminology and abbreviations A suffix is found at the end of a word. A suffix by itself does not form a full word. When you add a prefix or a root, the suffix turns it into a working medical term. For example, the suffix “meter” means measuring instrument. The prefix “thermo” means heat. A thermometer is an instrument that measures body temperature.
47 Handout 3-3: Suffixes-cyte: cell leukocyte = white blood cell -ectomy: excision, removal of splenectomy = removal of spleen -emesis: vomiting hyperemesis = excessive vomiting -emia: blood condition anemia = lack of red blood cells -ism: a condition hyperthyroidism = condition caused by an excessive production of thyroid hormones -itis: inflammation stomatitis = inflammation of the mouth -logy: study of hematology = study of the blood -megaly: enlargement splenomegaly = enlarged spleen -oma: tumor melanoma = mole or tumor, may be cancerous -osis: condition halitosis = bad breath
48 Handout 3-3: Suffixes (cont’d.) -ostomy: creation of an opening ileostomy = creation of an opening into the ileum -otomy: cut into laparotomy = cutting into the abdomen -pathy: disease myopathy = disease of the muscle -penia: lack leukopenia = a lack of white blood cells -phagia: to eat dysphagia = difficulty swallowing -phasia: speaking aphasia = absence of speaking -phobia: exaggerated fear acrophobia = fear of high places -plasty: surgical repair angioplasty = surgical repair of a vessel using a balloon -plegia: paralysis paraplegia = paralysis of lower portion of the body -rrhage: excessive flow hemorrhage = excessive flow of blood
49 Handout 3-3: Suffixes (cont’d.) -scopy: examination using a scope colonoscopy = examination of the large intestine or colon with a scope -stomy: creation of an opening colostomy = opening into the colon -tomy: incision, cutting into thoracotomy = incision into chest wall -uria: condition of the urine dysuria = painful urination
50 6. Understand basic medical terminology and abbreviations Abbreviations help healthcare workers communicate more efficiently, and many abbreviations are used in healthcare. Two examples of a common medical abbreviations are “BP” for blood pressure and “temp” for temperature.
51 Handout 3-4: Abbreviations a before AAROM active-assistive range of motion abd abdomen ABR absolute bedrest ac, a.c. before meals AD Alzheimer’s disease ADC AIDS dementia complex ad lib as desired adm. admission ADLs activities of daily living AED automated external defribrillator AHA American Heart Association AIDS acquired immune deficiency syndrome AIIR airborne infection isolation room AKA above-knee amputation, also known asam, AM morning AMA against medical advice, American Medical Association amb ambulate, ambulatory AMD age-related macular degeneration amt. amount ant. anterior ANS autonomic nervous system a.p./AP apical pulse approx. approximately AROM active range of motion ASAP as soon as possible assist assistance as tol as tolerated A, T, D admission, transfer, and discharge ax axillary BID, b.i.d. two times a day
52 Handout 3-4: Abbreviations (cont’d.) BKA below-knee amputation bld blood BLS basic life support BM bowel movement BP, B/P blood pressure BPH benign prostatic hypertrophy BPM beats per minute BR bedrest BRP bathroom privileges BSC bedside commode BSE breast self examination C centigrade, Celsius c with Ca/CA calcium, cancer, carcinoma CAD coronary artery disease cal calorie cath. catheter CBC complete blood count CBI continuous bladder irrigationCBR complete bedrest CCMS clean-catch midstream CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDE certified diabetes educator C-diff clostridium difficile CEP competency evaluation (testing) programs CEU continuing education unit CHD coronary heart disease CHF congestive heart failure chol cholesterol ck check cl liq clear liquid cm centimeter CMS Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services CNA certified nursing assistant CNP certified nurse practitioner
53 Handout 3-4: Abbreviations (cont’d.) CNS central nervous system c/o complains of, in care of CO2 carbon dioxide COLD chronic obstructive lung disease COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease CP cerebral palsy CPM continuous passive motion CPR cardiopulmonary resuscitation CRF chronic renal failure CSF cerebrospinal fluid C.S. Central Supply CVA cerebrovascular accident, stroke CVP central venous pressure CVS cardiovascular system CXR chest x-ray DAT diet as tolerated DKA diabetic ketoacidosisDJD degenerative joint disease DM diabetes mellitus DNR do not resuscitate DO doctor of osteopathy DOA dead on arrival DOB date of birth DON director of nursing Dr. doctor DRG diagnostic related group drsg dressing DVT deep vein thrombosis Dx/dx diagnosis ECG/EKG electrocardiogram ED emergency department EENT eye, ear, nose and throat e.g. for example EMS emergency medical services ER emergency room ESRD end-stage renal disease
54 Handout 3-4: Abbreviations (cont’d.) et al. and other things ETOH alcohol exam examination F Fahrenheit, female FBS fasting blood sugar FDA Food and Drug Administration Fe iron FF force fluids FH family history fld fluid FS fingerstick FSBS fingerstick blood sugar ft foot FUO fever of unknown origin FWB full weight-bearing FYI for your information F/U, f/u follow-up fx fracture GAD generalized anxiety disordergal gallon GB gallbladder GERD gastroesophageal reflux disease geri chair geriatric chair GI gastrointestinal GP general practitioner Gm, gm gram GSW gunshot wound GTT glucose tolerance test GU genitourinary GYN/gyn gynecology h, hr, hr. hour H20 water H202 hydrogen peroxide HAART highly active anti-retroviral therapy H/A headache HAV hepatitis A virus HBV hepatitis B virus
55 Handout 3-4: Abbreviations (cont’d.) HCV hepatitis C virus HDV hepatitis D virus HEV hepatitis E virus Hg mercury HHA home health aide Hi-cal high calorie HIPAA Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act HIV human immunodeficiency virus H&P history and physical HOB head of bed HOH hard of hearing HMO health maintenance organization HPV human papillomavirus HS/hs hours of sleep ht height HTN hypertension H.U.C. Health Unit Coordinator Hx historyhyper above normal, too fast, rapid hypo low, less than normal IBD irritable bowel disease IBS irritable bowel syndrome ICCU intermediate intensive care unit ICU intensive care unit ID identification I&D incision and drainage i.e. that is IM intramuscular In inch inc incontinent inf inferior I&O intake and output IQ intelligence quotient Irr/irrig irrigation I.V., IV intravenous isol isolation K+ potassium
56 Handout 3-4: Abbreviations (cont’d.) kg kilogram KS Kaposi’s sarcoma l liter L left lab laboratory lb pound LBP low back pain LE lower extremity LLE left lower extremity lg large liq liquid LLQ left lower quadrant LOC level of consciousness, level of care Low-cal low calorie Low Fat low fat Low cal low calorie Low Na low sodium LPN Licensed Practical Nurse lt leftLTC long-term care LTCF long-term care facility LUQ left upper quadrant LVN Licensed Vocational Nurse M.D. medical doctor MD muscular dystrophy MDROs multidrug-resistant organisms MDR-TB multidrug resistant tuberculosis MDS minimum data set meds medications med-surg medical-surgical mg milligram MI myocardial infarction min minute mL milliliter mm millimeter mm Hg millimeters of mercury MO microorganism mod moderate
57 Handout 3-4: Abbreviations (cont’d.) MRI magnetic resonance imaging MRSA methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus MS multiple sclerosis MSDs musculoskeletal disorders MSDS material safety data sheet MSW medical social worker MUFA monounsaturated fat MVA motor vehicle accident Na sodium N/A not applicable NA nursing assistant NaCl sodium chloride NAS no added salt NATCEP Nurse Aide Training and Competency Evaluation Program N/C no complaints, no call NCS no concentrated sweets neg negativeNF nursing facility NG, ng nasogastric NIBP non-invasive blood pressure monitoring no number NKA no known allergies NKDA no known drug allergies noc night NPO nothing by mouth NVD nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea NWB non-weight-bearing O2 oxygen OB obstetrics ob/gyn obstetrics and gynecology OBRA Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act OCD obsessive-compulsive disorder OG orogastric
58 Handout 3-4: Abbreviations (cont’d.) OOB out of bed occ occasionally OCD obsessive compulsive disorder OD overdose O.D. right eye O&P ova and parasites OPD outpatient department O.R. operating room ord. orderly, ordered ORIF open reduction, internal fixation ortho orthopedics os mouth O.S. left eye OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration OT occupational therapist, occupational therapy OTC over-the-counter (medication) O.U. both eyesoz. ounce P after P.A. physician’s assistant PAD peripheral artery disease pc, p.c. after meals PCA patient-controlled anesthesia PDR Physician’s Desk Reference PE pulmonary embolism Peds pediatrics PEG percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy per os by mouth PET positron emission tomography peri care perineal care pH parts hydrogen PH past history PHI protected health information phy. ex. physical exam
59 Handout 3-4: Abbreviations (cont’d.) PID pelvic inflammatory disease PM/pm afternoon PMH past medical history PNS peripheral nervous system PO (per os) by mouth post op after surgery PPD purified protein derivative (test for tuberculosis) PPE personal protective equipment pos. positive pre op before surgery prep preparation prn when necessary prog. progress PROM passive range of motion Pt/pt patient pt. pint P.T. physical therapist, physical therapy PTH parathyroid hormonePTSD post-traumatic stress disorder PUFA polyunsaturated fat PVD peripheral vascular disease PWB partial weight-bearing q every Q&A questions and answers QA quality assurance qam every morning qd every day qh, qhr every hour qhs every night at bedtime Q2h every two hours Q3h every three hours q4h every four hours q.o.d. every other day qt. quart quad quadrant, quadriplegic R respirations, rectal R, rt. right
60 Handout 3-4: Abbreviations (cont’d.) RA rheumatoid arthritis RBC red blood cell RDT registered dietician reg. regular rehab rehabilitation REM rapid eye movement req. requisition res. resident resp. respiration RF restrict fluids RLE right lower extremity RLQ right lower quadrant RN registered nurse RNA restorative nursing assistant R/O rule out ROM range of motion RR respiratory rate R/rt. right RT respiratory therapy/therapistRUE right upper extremity RUQ right upper quadrant Rx prescription, treatment s without S&A sugar and acetone s.c. subcutaneously SCA sudden cardiac arrest SCDs sequential compression devices SIDS sudden infant death syndrome sl sublingually SLE systemic lupus erythematosis SLP speech-language pathologist sm. small SNAFU situation normal, all fouled up (slang) SNF skilled nursing facility spec. specimen SOB shortness of breath
61 Handout 3-4: Abbreviations (cont’d.) SNS somatic nervous system SP Standard Precautions S.P.D. Supply, Processing and Distribution Ss one-half S&S, S/S signs and symptoms SSE soapsuds enema ST. standard, speech therapy staph staphylococcus STAT/stat immediately Std prec Standard Precautions STDs sexually-transmitted diseases STIs sexually-transmitted infections strep streptococcus supp. suppository surg. Surgery T., temp temperature TB tuberculosistbsp. tablespoon T,C, DB turn, cough, and deep breathe THR total hip replacement TIA transient ischemic attack t.i.d., tid three times a day UTI urinary tract infection vag. vaginal VAP ventilator-acquired pneumonia VD venereal disease VRE vancomycin-resistant enterococcus VS, vs vital signs W/A,WA while awake WBC white blood cell/count w/c wheelchair WNL within normal limits wt. weight yr. year
62 Handout 3-4: Abbreviations (cont’d.) TKR total knee replacement TLC tender loving care TPN total parenteral nutrition T.P.R. temperature, pulse, and respiration trach. tracheostomy tsp. teaspoon TWE tap water enema Tx, tx traction, treatment U/A, u/a urinalysis UE upper extremity UGI upper gastrointestinal unk unknown URI upper respiratory infection US ultrasound USDA United States Department of Agriculture
63 6. Understand basic medical terminology and abbreviations Review the information in the book and handouts about medical terminology and abbreviations. Think about this question: In what ways would it be more difficult for healthcare workers (doctors, nurses, nursing assistants, etc.) to communicate if there were no medical terminology or abbreviations?
64 7. Explain how to convert regular time to military time Facilities may use the 24-hour clock, or military time, to document information. Regular time uses numbers 1 through 12. In military time, the hours are numbered from 00 to 23.To change the regular hours between 1:00 p.m. to 11:59 to military time, add 12 to the regular time.Minutes and seconds do not change.Midnight may be written as 0000 or 2400; follow your facility’s policy.
66 8. Describe a standard resident chart Define the following terms: medical chart written legal record of all medical care a patient, resident, or client receives. charting the act of noting care and observations; documenting.
67 8. Describe a standard resident chart Your responsibility as a nursing assistant is to gather information and report it to the nurse. You will write down your observations and record the care you give. This is called charting. Some facilities allow nursing assistants to chart in a medical record. Others limit nursing assistants’ charting to certain forms.
68 8. Describe a standard resident chart REMEMBER: A resident’s chart is the legal record of a resident’s care. What is written on the chart is considered to be what actually happened.
69 8. Describe a standard resident chart Information found on a resident’s chart:Admission formsResident’s history and results of examsCare plansDoctor’s orders and progress notesNursing assessmentsNotes from nurses and other specialists
70 8. Describe a standard resident chart Information found on a resident’s chart (cont'd.):Flow sheetsGraphic recordIntake and output recordConsent formsLab and test resultsSurgery reportsAdvance directives
71 8. Describe a standard resident chart REMEMBER: All information in a resident’s chart is confidential.
72 9. Explain guidelines for documentation Nursing assistants chart, or document, all resident care that they provide. They also document their observations. It is very important to document accurately because documentation is a legal record of all resident care.
73 9. Explain guidelines for documentation Remember these guidelines for accurate documentation:Keep all information confidential.Document care immediately after it is given. Never document care before it is given.Use black ink.Sign each note you make.
74 9. Explain guidelines for documentation Guidelines for accurate documentation (cont'd.):Use only facts when documenting.If an error is made, draw one line through it and initial it and write the date. Write the correct information.Use only your facility’s accepted abbreviations and terms.Use comparisons to describe size.
75 10. Describe the use of computers in documentation Your facility may use computers to document information. Computers can easily store information that can be retrieved when it is needed.Remember these general rules for computer use:Do not share your password or log-in ID with anyone.Do not access personal or inappropriate websites from work.Log off and/or exit the web browser when done with charting or using the computer.Be careful about who can see PHI on the screen, as HIPAA guidelines apply to computer use.
76 11. Explain the Minimum Data Set (MDS) Define the following term: Minimum Data Set (MDS) a detailed form with guidelines for assessing residents in long-term care facilities; also details what to do if resident problems are identified.
77 11. Explain the Minimum Data Set (MDS) The Minimum Data Set (MDS) manual is an assessment tool developed by the federal government. It gives long-term care facilities a structured, standardized approach to care.Here are some facts about the MDS:Assessment tool developed by the federal governmentDetailed form for assessing residentsDetails what to do if problems are identifiedCompleted for each resident within 14 days of admission and again each year
78 11. Explain the Minimum Data Set (MDS) Facts about the MDS (cont'd.):Must be reviewed every three monthsNew MDS is done when there is any major change in resident’s condition
79 11. Explain the Minimum Data Set (MDS) REMEMBER: Your reports on changes in the condition of residents you care for is extremely important. When you report any changes right away, a new MDS assessment can be done if needed.
80 12. Describe how to observe and report accurately Define the following terms: care plan a written plan for each resident created by the nurse; outlines the steps taken by the staff to help the resident reach his or her goals. objective information factual information collected using the senses of sight, hearing, smell, and touch; also called signs. subjective information information collected from residents, their family members and friends; information may or may not be true but is what the person reported; also called symptoms.
81 12. Describe how to observe and report accurately Define the following terms: orientation a person’s awareness of person, place, and time. vital signs measurements—temperature, pulse, respirations, blood pressure, pain level—that monitor the functioning of the vital organs of the body. critical thinking the process of reasoning and analyzing in order to solve problems; for the nursing assistant, critical thinking means making good observations and promptly reporting all potential problems.
82 12. Describe how to observe and report accurately REMEMBER: Nursing assistants spend more time with residents than any other care team members do. Because they spend the most time with residents, they are in the best position to observe changes in residents. The care plan that nurses create for residents is based on information observed and reported by nursing assistants and other staff members.
83 12. Describe how to observe and report accurately Think about this question: What would happen if a nursing assistant reported incorrect or inaccurate information about a resident?
85 12. Describe how to observe and report accurately Nursing assistants will report signs and symptoms that they observe. This information will be either objective or subjective. Objective information is information based on what you see, hear, touch, or smell; it is collected using four of the five senses: sight, hearing, smell, and touch. It is also called “signs.” Subjective information is information collected from something that residents or their families reported to you, and it may or may not be accurate. It is also called “symptoms.”
86 12. Describe how to observe and report accurately Other ways to observe residents accurately:Note changes in orientation.Check vital signs.Report any changes in ability.Report other important changes, such as appetite, ability to go to the bathroom, and mood.
87 12. Describe how to observe and report accurately REMEMBER: Critical thinking for nursing assistants involves making good observations to get help for potential problems.
88 12. Describe how to observe and report accurately Remember that these signs and symptoms should be reported right away:WheezingDifficulty breathingChest pain and pressurePain in calf of legBlurred visionSlurred speech
89 12. Describe how to observe and report accurately Signs and symptoms that should be reported right away (cont'd.):VomitingSudden limp or change in ability to walkNumbness or loss of feeling in one side of body or in arms or legsAbdominal painChange in vital signsHeadacheFalls
90 Handout 3-5: Scientific Method The scientific method is a process used to determine the best solution to solve certain problems. In order to do this, a problem must be identified. Once the problem is discovered, a hypothesis must be created. A hypothesis is a possible explanation for a problem or observation. After the hypothesis is created, it is tested through investigation and experiments. After performing tests, a conclusion is usually reached. In order to determine solutions using the scientific method, facts, not opinions or emotions, must be used. Problem: Resident Mrs. S says that it hurts when she urinates. Hypothesis: She has a UTI. Conclusion: The urine was tested, and bacteria was found in the urine. The resident has started taking antibiotics, and she states: “I feel much better now.” The resident is resting comfortably.
91 13. Explain the nursing process Define the following term: nursing process an organized method used by nurses to determine residents’ needs, plan the appropriate care to meet those needs, and evaluate how well the plan of care is working; five steps are assessment, diagnosis, planning, implementation, and evaluation.
92 13. Explain the nursing process The nursing process has five steps:AssessmentDiagnosisPlanningImplementationEvaluation
93 14. Discuss the nursing assistant’s role in care planning and at care conferences Define the following term: care conference a meeting to share and gather information about residents in order to develop a care plan.
94 14. Discuss the nursing assistant’s role in care planning and at care conferences REMEMBER:Nursing assistants have an important role in care planning. Care plans are prepared from the observations of staff caring for the resident.At care planning meetings, do not be afraid to share your observations. If you are unsure about what information to share, talk to the nurse before the meeting.
95 14. Discuss the nursing assistant’s role in care planning and at care conferences Care plans may be written at a special care conference. The care conference is a meeting to share and gather information. This is done in order to develop care plans for residents. Care team members may attend. Each team member may share important information used to create or add to the care plan.
96 15. Describe incident reporting and recording Define the following terms: incident an accident, problem, or unexpected event during the course of care. sentinel event an unexpected occurrence involving death or serious physical or psychological injury. incident report a report documenting an incident and the response to the incident; also known as an occurrence report or event report.
97 15. Describe incident reporting and recording Incident reports are vital to the safety of the staff and residents. An incident is an accident, problem, or unexpected event during the course of care.Events in the facility that are considered incidents:An accident or problem during the course of careAn error in care, such as feeding the resident from the wrong meal trayA fall or injury to a resident or staff memberAn accusation against staff members
98 15. Describe incident reporting and recording A sentinel event is an unexpected occurrence involving death or serious physical or psychological injury. An example of a sentinel event is a resident falling out of bed and breaking a hip or a medication error that results in a resident’s death.
99 15. Describe incident reporting and recording REMEMBER: An incident report must be filled out if a nursing assistant is injured on the job in any way, even if it seems minor.
100 15. Describe incident reporting and recording Remember these guidelines for incident reporting:Include exactly what you saw.State the time and the condition of the resident or visitor.Describe the person’s reaction to the incident.State the facts.Do not give your opinion.
101 16. Explain proper telephone etiquette REMEMBER: When you use the telephone during your shift, you are representing your facility to the community. You must follow rules for proper telephone etiquette.
102 16. Explain proper telephone etiquette Remember these rules for telephone etiquette:Cheerfully greet callers.Identify your facility, yourself, and your position.Listen closely to the caller’s request and write down any messages.Get a telephone number if needed.Thank the caller and say “Goodbye.”
103 16. Explain proper telephone etiquette Remember these rules for general telephone use:Do not give out staff or resident information over the phone.Ask before placing a caller on hold.Ask for training to transfer calls.Follow facility policy regarding cell phone use.
104 16. Explain proper telephone etiquette Think about this question: What could happen if you gave out confidential information about residents or staff over the phone?
105 17. Describe the resident call system Residents signal staff that they need them by using the call system. Other terms for this system are “signal light,” or “call light.” This system allows residents to call for help when needed.
106 17. Describe the resident call system REMEMBER:The call light is the residents’ lifeline and must always be answered immediately. Ignoring a call light is abuse.A call light must always be left within the resident’s reach before leaving the room.
107 18. Describe the nursing assistant’s role in change-of-shift reports and “rounds” Define the following term: rounds physical movement of staff from room to room to discuss each resident and his or her care plan.
108 18. Describe the nursing assistant’s role in change-of-shift reports and “rounds” Remember these guidelines for start-of-shift reports:Arrive on time.Listen for your assignment and for information about all residents in your area.Listen carefully to information from the prior shift.Ask any questions you have about your residents.
109 18. Describe the nursing assistant’s role in change-of-shift reports and “rounds” REMEMBER: Your role in end-of-shift reports is to report information gathered about residents during your shift so that the staff members on the next shift can provide good care.109
110 19. List the information found on an assignment sheet Define the following terms: code status formally written status of the type and scope of care that should be provided in the event of a cardiac arrest, other catastrophic failure, or terminal illness; terms and acronyms are used to identify the care desired by the person, such as “DNR” (do not resuscitate) and “no code.” code in health care, an emergent medical situation in which specially-trained responders provide resuscitative measures to a person.
111 19. List the information found on an assignment sheet An assignment sheet lists residents and all of the tasks that you must do for them.Information typically found on an assignment sheet:Residents’ names and room numbersMedical diagnosisCode statusActivity levelRange of motion (ROM) exercisesBathing information
112 19. List the information found on an assignment sheet Information typically found on an assignment sheet (cont'd.):Diet ordersFluid ordersBowel and bladder informationHow often to measure vital signsTreatments to be performedTests and procedures to be performed
113 20. Discuss how to organize your work and manage time Define the following term: prioritize to place things in order of importance.
114 20. Discuss how to organize your work and manage time Remember these tips for organization and time management:Plan ahead.Identify the most important tasks and get those done first.Make a schedule.Combine activities.Get help when needed.
115 20. Discuss how to organize your work and manage time REMEMBER: Do not be afraid to ask for help. If you cannot complete an assignment for any reason, notify the nurse. Nursing assistants who are not afraid to ask for help provide the best care to their residents.
116 20. Discuss how to organize your work and manage time Think about these questions:How strong are your organization and time management skills?In what ways can you improve them?
117 ExamMultiple Choice. Choose the correct answer. 1. Which of the following is an example of nonverbal communication? (A) Writing a note in a resident’s chart (B) Giving an oral report to a supervisor (C) Smiling at a new resident (D) Speaking in an encouraging tone of voice to a resident who is moving slowly 2. Which of the following is an example of positive nonverbal communication by a nursing assistant? (A) Leaning forward to listen as a resident talks about her day (B) Rolling her eyes as the supervisor gives an assignment (C) Tapping her foot while waiting for a resident to get ready for his bath (D) Shaking her head when a resident has been incontinent
118 Exam (cont’d.)3. To communicate well with a resident, a nursing assistant should: (A) Finish his sentences for him if he is taking a long time to say something (B) State her opinions as though they were facts (C) Be aware of her body language (D) Fill any pauses in conversation to prevent awkwardness 4. If a resident is difficult to understand, a nursing assistant should: (A) Pretend to understand the resident even when she doesn’t (B) Restate what she is saying in her own words to find out if she has understood (C) Avoid communicating with the resident (D) Use clichés to make it easier for the resident to understand what is being said
119 Exam (cont’d.)5. Why is it important to consider a resident’s cultural background when communicating with him or her? (A) It is not important to consider cultural background. (B) Because the resident will certainly want to tell stories about his or her culture. (C) Because you might know somebody with the same background and you can tell the resident about that person. (D) Because cultural background helps determine how people communicate and can help you communicate better with the resident. 6. If a resident’s native language is different from the nursing assistant’s, the nursing assistant should: (A) Use an interpreter to translate the message (B) Ignore the resident unless she speaks in the nursing assistant’s language (C) Communicate with coworkers in nursing assistant’s native language in front of the resident (D) Ask the resident only yes/no questions
120 Exam (cont’d.)7. Each time a nursing assistant greets a resident, he should: (A) Assume that the resident knows who he is (B) Explain the procedure to be performed (C) Reassure the resident that she won’t have to do anything during the procedure (D) Avoid telling the resident about the procedure if he thinks it will upset her 8. One way to have a good relationship with a resident’s family and friends is to: (A) Avoid talking to the resident when he has visitors (B) Let the family take care of the resident’s needs themselves (C) Tell the resident’s friends stories about the resident that will make them laugh (D) Respond immediately when the resident calls for help
121 Exam (cont’d.)9. The main part of a word that gives it meaning is the: (A) Prefix (B) Root (C) Suffix (D) Abbreviation 10. When is it appropriate to use medical terminology? (A) When communicating with the care team (B) When communicating with residents (C) When communicating with residents’ families (D) When communicating with visitors
122 Exam (cont’d.) 11. In regular time, 1330 hours would be: (A) 1:30 a.m. (B) 1:30 p.m.(C) 11:30 a.m.11:30 p.m.12. In military time, 7:45 p.m. would be:(A) 0745 hours(B) 1975 hours(C) 1945 hours(D) 0775 hours
123 Exam (cont’d.)13. A nursing assistant’s responsibility with the resident’s medical chart is to: (A) Keep the chart in case it is needed later (B) Make changes to the care plan (C) Gather information and write down observations and care (D) Suggest the best treatment for the resident 14. A nursing assistant can share information about residents with: (A) Anyone she chooses (B) The resident’s family and friends (C) Other members of the care team (D) No one
124 Exam (cont’d.)15. Accurate documentation is important because: (A) The medical chart includes information about the menus offered at the facility each day (B) Documentation provides an up-to-date record of residents’ status and care (C) Family members will want to view medical charts (D) Nursing assistants put their diagnoses in medical charts 16. When should documentation be recorded? (A) Immediately after care is given (B) At the end of the shift (C) Whenever there is time (D) Before the care is given
125 Exam (cont’d.)17. When using the computer at work, a nursing assistant should: (A) Access personal accounts (B) Log off the computer when she is finished using it (C) Look for websites she has a personal interest in (D) Share her password with the rest of the care team 18. Why must a nursing assistant be concerned about privacy if documentation is done on a computer? (A) It is common for computer hackers to target LTC facilities. (B) Because the federal government is monitoring all computers in LTC facilities to ensure that HIPAA is followed. (C) Because residents will probably try to sneak a look at other residents’ information. (D) Because the information is confidential and someone who is not part of the care team might see the screen.
126 Exam (cont’d.)19. Which of the following is true of the MDS? (A) MDS stands for Multiple Diagnosis System. (B) Every time an MDS is completed for a resident, an investigation by the state is done. (C) Not all residents will have an MDS. (D) A nursing assistant’s report may trigger a needed assessment for a resident. 20. Which of the following statements contains objective information? (A) Mr. Castillo seems a little grouchy today. (B) Mr. Castillo says that he has a stomachache. (C) Mr. Castillo’s blood pressure is 115/68. (D) Mr. Castillo doesn’t get along with the nurses very well.
127 Exam (cont’d.)21. Which of the following statements gives subjective information? (A) Mrs. Parker says she is feeling dizzy. (B) Mrs. Parker has a temperature of 101°F. (C) Mrs. Parker had a visit from her son today. (D) Mrs. Parker didn’t eat any of her dinner today. 22. Which of the following senses is not used in making observations? (A) Sight (B) Touch (C) Smell (D) Taste
128 Exam (cont’d.)23. Choose the resident condition that the NA should report immediately to the nurse. (A) Family fighting (B) Chest pain (C) Watching too much TV (D) Acting lonely 24. The correct order of the steps in the nursing process is: (A) Diagnosis, planning, evaluation, implementation, assessment (B) Assessment, diagnosis, planning, implementation, evaluation (C) Evaluation, implementation, assessment, planning, diagnosis (D) Planning, assessment, implementation, evaluation, diagnosis
129 Exam (cont’d.)25. What is the nursing assistant’s role in care planning? (A) The nursing assistant will write the care plan. (B) The nursing assistant will share observations that may affect the care plan. (C) The nursing assistant makes changes to the care plan. (D) The nursing assistant has no role in care planning. 26. If a nursing assistant is not sure what information to share at the care conference, she should: (A) Talk to the nurse before the meeting (B) Not attend the meeting (C) Attend the meeting, but not say anything (D) Ask the other team members at the meeting what they need to know
130 Exam (cont’d.)27. Which of the following would be considered an incident? (A) Mrs. Storey eats half of her dinner. (B) Mrs. Desmond’s family thanks a nursing assistant for taking such good care of her. (C) Mr. Noble wants to go for a walk after his bath. (D) Ms. Martin slips and falls in the bathroom but seems uninjured. 28. A sentinel event is: (A) Any event requiring an incident report (B) An occurrence involving death or serious injury (C) A normal event that occurs in the course of the day (D) A complaint by a resident or family member
131 Exam (cont’d.)29. Under what conditions should a nursing assistant fill out an incident report if he is injured on the job? (A) Only if the injury is serious (B) Only if the nursing assistant feels the facility is at fault (C) Only if another employee was involved (D) Any time he is injured on the job 30. Which of the following is the best example of using proper telephone etiquette at work? (A) “Yes, Mr. Garcia is a resident here; he was admitted for dementia.” (B) “Good afternoon, Hartman Skilled Care Facility, Brenda Johnson speaking.” (C) “We’re very busy here today. Can you call back some other time?” (D) “No, I’m sorry, I can’t take a message. That is not part of my duties.”
132 Exam (cont’d.)31. If a nursing assistant sees a call light for a resident that is not assigned to her, she should: (A) Answer the call light (B) Tell the nursing assistant assigned to that resident to answer it (C) Tell the supervisor (D) Ignore it 32. Rounds are: (A) The group of residents assigned to each nursing assistant (B) The list of tasks that must be done on each shift (C) A method of reporting in which staff move from room to room (D) Meetings during which the care plan is written
133 Exam (cont’d.)33. What does a resident’s code status indicate? (A) The type of diet a resident has and how much food should be offered at each meal (B) The type care that should be provided in the event of a cardiac arrest or other catastrophic failure (C) The type and amount of medication that a resident must take each day (D) The type of personal care tasks that must be completed each day for a resident 34. What is the first thing a nursing assistant should do after getting a work assignment? (A) Set up residents for mealtime (B) Write down anything important on the assignment sheet (C) Check to see if any of his assigned residents requires immediate help or care (D) Take vital signs on all residents
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