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Slide 1 Copyright © 2005. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Textbook For Nursing.

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Presentation on theme: "Slide 1 Copyright © 2005. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Textbook For Nursing."— Presentation transcript:

1 Slide 1 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Textbook For Nursing Assistants Chapter 16 - Vital Signs, Height and Weight

2 Slide 2 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Vital Signs

3 Slide 3 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. What is a vital sign? Vital signs are key measurements that provide essential information about overall health status What do vital signs indicate? A change in a vital sign may indicate a response to illness or injury Vital Signs

4 Slide 4 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Specified on nursing care plan or doctor’s orders Long-term care facility: once daily or weekly, and as needed Hospital: every shift or every few hours, and as needed Within the nursing assistant’s scope of practice to take vital signs whenever he or she thinks it is warranted When are Vital Signs Taken?

5 Slide 5 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Accuracy is important: many people rely on these measurements to make decisions about the person’s care Report an abnormal measurement immediately Recording and Reporting Vital Signs

6 Slide 6 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Body Temperature

7 Slide 7 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. It is the difference between heat produced and heat lost by the body Body heat is produced as a normal process of metabolism Body temperature is regulated by thermoregulatory center located in the brain What is Body Temperature?

8 Slide 8 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Physical or emotional stress Environmental temperature Time of the day Age Gender Factors Affecting Body Temperature

9 Slide 9 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Measured in either degrees Fahrenheit (°F) or degrees Celsius (°C) Measured from Mouth – Oral temperature Rectum – Rectal temperature Armpit – Axillary temperature Ear – Aural temperature Forehead – Temporal temperature Measurement of Body Temperature

10 Slide 10 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Glass Thermometer Electronic and Digital Thermometer Tympanic Thermometer Temporal Artery Thermometer Types of Clinical Thermometers Glass Thermometers

11 Slide 11 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Normal body temperature ranges from 0.5 °F to 1 °F above or below the range considered “normal” Pyrexia: increased body temperature A person with pyrexia is said to be “febrile” The doctor may order an antipyretic (fever- reducing) drug Normal and Abnormal Findings

12 Slide 12 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Pulse

13 Slide 13 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. When the heart beats, it sends a wave, or pulse, of blood through the arteries When checking the pulse, we look at the: Pulse rate Pulse rhythm  Irregular pulse rhythm is called dysrhythmia Pulse amplitude What is a Pulse?

14 Slide 14 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Need for oxygen and nutrients Anger and anxiety, illness, pain, fever, and excitement Certain medications Factors Affecting Pulse

15 Slide 15 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Radial Pulse: Taken by placing fingers over the radial artery (inside of wrist) Apical Pulse: Taken by listening over the apex of the heart with a stethoscope Measuring the Pulse

16 Slide 16 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Pulse Points

17 Slide 17 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Tachycardia is a rapid heart rate, or a pulse rate of more than 100 beats per minute for an adult A heart rate that is slower than normal, that is, a pulse rate of less than 60 beats per minute is called bradycardia Normal and Abnormal Findings

18 Slide 18 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Respiration

19 Slide 19 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Respiration is accomplished through ventilation Ventilation is: Inhalation of oxygen Exhalation of carbon dioxide Respiration indicates: Respiratory rate Respiratory rhythm Depth of respiration Process of Respiration

20 Slide 20 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Control center, chemoreceptors Anxiety, pain, fear Fever Infections and diseases of the heart and lungs Stroke or head injury Medications Factors Affecting Respiration

21 Slide 21 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Respiratory rate determined by watching the rise and fall of the person’s chest and counting the number of breaths that occur in either 30 seconds or 1 minute One breath = 1 exhalation and 1 inhalation Measuring Respiration

22 Slide 22 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Normal respiratory rate – Eupnea 16 to 20 times a minute for adult Higher for children and infants Abnormal respiratory patterns Tachypnea Bradypnea Dyspnea Hyperventilation Hypoventilation Normal and Abnormal Findings

23 Slide 23 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Blood Pressure

24 Slide 24 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. The force that the blood exerts against the arterial walls Two pressure levels Systolic pressure Diastolic pressure  The difference between the two is pulse pressure Measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) and recorded as a fraction What is Blood Pressure?

25 Slide 25 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Cardiac output Blood volume Resistance to blood flow Age Gender Race Factors Affecting Blood Pressure

26 Slide 26 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Two ways of measuring: Manually operated sphygmomanometer and a stethoscope Automated sphygmomanometers Measuring Blood Pressure Manually operated sphygmomanometer

27 Slide 27 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Accepted normal ranges for the systolic pressure are between 100 and 140 mm Hg, and for the diastolic pressure, between 60 and 90 mm Hg Abnormal ranges Hypertension Hypotension Orthostatic hypotension Normal and Abnormal Findings

28 Slide 28 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Height and Weight

29 Slide 29 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. A person’s weight: Provides insight into overall health, and nutritional status Often used to calculate medication dosages Frequency for checking Height - on admission, and on transfer or discharge Weight - at regular intervals Height and Weight

30 Slide 30 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. Height is measured in feet (‘) and inches (‘’) or in centimeters (cm). Weight is measured in pounds (lbs) or kilograms (kg.) Ways of measurement: Upright scale Chair scale Tape measure and sling scale Measuring Height and Weight Upright Scale

31 Slide 31 Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Instructor's Manual to Accompany Lippincott's Textbook for Nursing Assistants. End of Presentation


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