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Physical, Chemical properties and Uses By: Vipul Anand 040/13 Sparsh 034/13 Ayush Pratik 044/13.

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Presentation on theme: "Physical, Chemical properties and Uses By: Vipul Anand 040/13 Sparsh 034/13 Ayush Pratik 044/13."— Presentation transcript:

1 Physical, Chemical properties and Uses By: Vipul Anand 040/13 Sparsh 034/13 Ayush Pratik 044/13

2 MAGNESITE Physical Properties of Magnesite Chemical Classification carbonate Color white, grayish, yellowish, brownish, colorless Streakwhite Lustervitreous Diaphaneitytransparent to translucent Cleavageperfect Mohs Hardness3.5 to 5.0 Specific Gravity3.0 to 3.2 Diagnostic Properties dissolves with warm HCl in the powdered form Chemical Composition MgCO 3 Crystal Systemhexagonal USES : It is used in the making of : Refractory bricks Cement

3 DOLOMITE Physical Properties of Dolomite Chemical Classification carbonate Color colorless, white, pink, green, gray, brown, black Streakwhite Lustervitreous, pearly Diaphaneitytransparent to translucent Cleavage perfect, rhombohedral, three directions Mohs Hardness3.5 to 4 Specific Gravity2.8 to 2.9 Diagnostic Properties rhombohedral cleavage, powdered form effervesces weakly in dilute HCl, hardness Chemical Composition (CaMg)(CO 3 ) 2 Crystal Systemhexagonal USES : Construction aggregate Cement manufacture Dimension stone Calcined to produce lime Sometimes an oil and gas reservoir A source of magnesia for the chemical industry Agricultural soil treatments Metallurgical flux

4 BIOTITE MineralChemical Composition AnniteKFe 3 (AlSi 3 )O 10 (OH) 2 PhlogopiteKMg 3 (AlSi 3 )O 10 (OH) 2 SiderophylliteKFe 2 Al(Al 2 Si 2 )O 10 (F,OH) 2 EastoniteKMg 2 Al(Al 2 Si 3 )O 10 (OH) 2 FluoranniteKFe 3 (AlSi 3 )O 10 F 2 Fluorophlogopi te KMg 3 (AlSi 3 )O 10 F 2 USES : Ground mica is used as a filler and extender in paints an additive to drilling muds an inert filler and mold-release agent in rubber products non-stick surface coating on asphalt shingles and rolled roofing. potassium-argon and argon-argon methods of dating igneous rocks. Physical Properties of Biotite Chemical Classification dark mica Colorblack, dark green, dark brown Streak white to gray, flakes often produced Lustervitreous Diaphaneity thin sheets are transparent to translucent, books are opaque Cleavagebasal, perfect Mohs Hardness2.5 to 3 Specific Gravity2.7 to 3.4 Diagnostic Properties dark color, perfect cleavage Chemical Composition K(Mg,Fe) 2-3 Al 1-2 Si 2- 3 O 10 (OH,F) 2 Crystal Systemmonoclinic

5 QUARTZ USES: Glass making Abrasive Foundry Sand Petroleum Physical Properties of Quartz Chemical Classification silicate Color Quartz occurs in virtually every color. Common colors are clear, white, gray, purple, yellow, brown, black, pink, green, red. Streak colorless (harder than the streak plate) Lustervitreous Diaphaneitytransparent to translucent Cleavage none - typically breaks with a conchoidal fracture Mohs Hardness7 Specific Gravity2.6 to 2.7 Diagnostic Properties conchoidal fracture, glassy luster, hardness Chemical Composition SiO 2 Crystal Systemhexagonal A ubiquitous mineral with an enormous number of uses

6 MUSCOVITE USES : Sheet muscovite is an excellent insulator and that makes it suitable for manufacturing specialized parts for electrical equipment. Scrap, flake and ground muscovite are used as fillers and extenders in a variety of paints, surface treatments and manufactured products. Used in the manufacturing of paint, joint compound, plastics rubber, asphalt roofing, cosmetics, drilling mud. The most abundant mica is used in a vareity of construction materials and manufactured products Physical Properties of Muscovite Chemical Classification silicate Color thick specimens often appear to be black, brown or silver in color; however, when split into thin sheets muscovite is colorless, sometimes with a tint of brown, yellow, green, or rose Streakwhite, often sheds tiny flakes Lusterpearly to vitreous Diaphaneitytransparent to translucent Cleavageperfect Mohs Hardness2.5 to 3 Specific Gravity2.8 to 2.9 Diagnostic Properties cleavage, color, transparency Chemical Composition KAl 2 (Si 3 AlO 10 )(OH) 2 Crystal Systemmonoclinic

7 BARITE The nonmetallic mineral with an incredible specific gravity. USES : Most barite produced is used as a weighting agent in drilling muds. Barite is also used as a pigment in paints and as a weighted filler for paper, cloth and rubber. Barite is the primary ore of barium, which is used to make a wide variety of barium compounds. Barite compounds are also used in diagnostic medical tests. Physical Properties of Barite Chemical Classification sulfate Color colorless, white, light blue, light yellow, light red, light green Streakwhite Lustervitreous to pearly Diaphaneitytransparent to translucent Cleavagevery good, basal, prismatic Mohs Hardness2.5 to 3.5 Specific Gravity4.5 Diagnostic Properties high specific gravity, three cleavage directions at right angles Chemical Composition barium sulfate, BaSO 4 Crystal Systemorthorhombic

8 BERYL Physical Properties of Beryl Chemical Classification silicate Color green, yellow, blue, red, pink, orange, colorless Streakcolorless (harder than the streak plate) Lustervitreous Diaphaneitytranslucent to transparent Cleavageimperfect Mohs Hardness7.5 to 8 Specific Gravity2.6 to 2.8 Diagnostic Properties Crystals are prismatic with flat terminations, hexagonal and without striations. Hardness and relatively low specific gravity. Chemical Composition Be 3 Al 2 Si 6 O 18 Crystal System hexagonal (occurs in prismatic to tabluar crystals) USES : The primary economic use of beryl today is as a gemstone. Different types of gems are emerald,aquamarine,morganite,goshenite, maxixe etc. This minor ore of beryllium is one of the most important gem minerals.

9 CALCITE Physical Properties of Calcite Chemical Classification carbonate Color usually white but also colorless, gray, red, green, blue, yellow, brown, orange Streakwhite Lustervitreous Diaphaneitytransparent to translucent Cleavage perfect, rhombohedral, three directions Mohs Hardness3 Specific Gravity2.7 Diagnostic Properties rhombohedral cleavage, powdered form effervesces weakly in dilute HCl, curved crystal faces and frequent twinning Chemical Composition CaCO 3 Crystal Systemhexagonal USES : Acid neutralization A low hardness abrasive Soil conditioner Heated for the production of lime Calcite: A Carbon Dioxide Repository

10 APATITE Physical Properties of Apatite Chemical Classification phosphate Color green, brown, blue, yellow, violet, colorless Streakwhite Lustervitreous to subresinous Diaphaneitytransparent to translucent Cleavagepoor Mohs Hardness5 Specific Gravity3.1 to 3.2 Diagnostic Properties color, crystal form, and hardness, can be scratched with a steel knife blade Chemical Composition a variety of calcium phosphates - fluorapatite: Ca 5 (PO 4 ) 3 F - hydroxylapatite: Ca 5 (PO 4 ) 3 (OH) - chlorapatite: Ca 5 (PO 4 ) 3 Cl - carbonate-rich apatite/francolite: Ca 5 (PO 4,CO 3 ) 3 (F,O) Crystal Systemhexagonal USES : Apatite is use in the manufacture of fertilizer - it is a source of phosphorus. It is occasionally used as a gemstone.

11 GRAPHITE Physical Properties of Graphite Chemical Classification native element Colorsteel gray to black Streakblack Lustermetallic, sometimes earthy Diaphaneityopaque Cleavageperfect in one direction Mohs Hardness1 to 2 Specific Gravity2.1 to 2.3 Diagnostic Properties color, streak, slippery feel, specific gravity Chemical Composition C Crystal Systemhexagonal Uses Used to manufacture heat and chemical resistant containers and other objects. Battery anodes. A dry lubricant. The "lead" in pencils.

12 GYPSUM USES : Gypsum uses include: manufacture of wallboard, cement, plaster of Paris, soil conditioning, a hardening retarder in Portland cement. Varieties of gypsum known as "satin spar" and "alabaster" are used for a variety of ornamental purposes, however their low hardness limits their durability. Physical Properties of Gypsum Chemical Classification sulfate Color clear, colorless, white, gray, yellow, red, brown Streakwhite Lustervitreous, silky, sugary Diaphaneitytransparent to translucent Cleavageperfect Mohs Hardness2 Specific Gravity2.3 Diagnostic Properties cleavage, specific gravity, low hardness Chemical Composition hydrous calcium sulfate, CaSO 4. 2H 2 O Crystal Systemmonoclinic An important construction material that has been used for thousands of years

13 TOURMALINE Physical Properties of Tourmaline Chemical Classificationsilicate Color bluish black, black, yellow, pink, blue, green, colorless, red Streakcolorless, gray Lustervitreous Diaphaneitytransparent to nearly opaque Cleavagepoor Mohs Hardness7 to 7.5 Specific Gravity3 to 3.3 Diagnostic Propertieslack of cleavage, color Chemical Composition (Ca,K,Na,[])(Al,Fe,Li,Mg,Mn) 3 (Al,Cr, Fe,V) 6 (BO 3 ) 3 (Si,Al,B) 6 O 18 (OH,F) 4 Crystal Systemhexagonal Usesgemstone

14 PYROPHYLLITE Physical Properties of Pyrophyllite Chemical Classification silicate Color white, pale blue, yellow, grayish green, brownish green Streakwhite Lusterpearly to greasy Diaphaneitytranslucent Cleavageperfect Mohs Hardness1 to 2 Specific Gravity2.7 to 2.9 Diagnostic Properties cleavage, greasy feel Chemical Composition Al 2 Si 4 O 10 (OH) 2 Crystal Systemmonoclinic USES : Ceramics Refractory materials

15 ORTHOCLASE Physical Properties of Orthoclase Chemical Classification silicate Color white, gray, flesh pink, reddish, yellow, green Streakwhite Lustervitreous Diaphaneitytranslucent to subtranslucent Cleavageperfect Mohs Hardness6 to 6.5 Specific Gravity2.5 to 2.6 Diagnostic Propertiescleavage, color Chemical Composition KAlSi 3 O 8 Crystal Systemmonoclinic USES : Gemstones Ceramics

16 TALC Physical Properties of Talc Chemical Classification silicate Color green, white, gray, brown, colorless Streakwhite to pale green Lusterpearly Diaphaneitytranslucent Cleavageperfect Mohs Hardness1 Specific Gravity2.7 to 2.8 Diagnostic Properties feel, color, softness, cleavage Chemical Composition Mg 3 Si 4 O 10 (OH) 2 Crystal Systemmonoclinic Uses used as a filler and anti-stick coating in plastics, ceramics, paint, paper, roofing, rubber, cosmetics

17 AGATE Chemical composition: SiO 2 Class: tectosilicate Crystal system: Hexagonal-R; 32 (trigonal- trapezohedral) Crystal habit: usually as banded or layered botryoidal masses with microfibrous structure Zoning: color banding and layers of inclusions are common Specific gravity: 2.57-2.64 Index of refraction: 1.53-1.55 Birefringence: weak, 0.005 to 0.009 Hardness: 6.5 to 7 Color: frequently colored by impurities and then may be any color. Luster: dull vitreous to greasy Transparency: translucent, can be transparent or opaque Cleavage: Cryptocrystalline quartz shows no cleavage, although parting may occur along layers and splintery fracture can develope parallel to microfibrous orientation. Fracture: conchoidal to splintery Streak: white Ornaments and Decorative Displays Industries(leather brushing tool) Ship’s Ballast USES Physical properties of Agate

18 KAOLINITE Manufacturing of porcelain and chinaware. Manufacturing of electrical insulators. Production of crockery and paint industry. Pharmaceuticals and cosmetic industry Filter in paper and textile industry. Utilized in large quantity as filler and reinforcing agent in rubber goods. ColorWhite, sometimes red, blue or brown tints from impurities Crystal habitRarely as crystals, thin plates or stacked, More commonly as microscopic pseudohexagonal plates and clusters of plates, aggregated into compact, claylike masses Crystal systemTriclinic CleavagePerfect on {001} TenacityFlexible but inelastic Mohs scale hardness2–2.5 LusterPearly to dull earthy StreakWhite Specific gravity2.16–2.68 Optical propertiesBiaxial (–) Refractive indexn α = 1.553–1.565, n β = 1.559–1.569, n γ = 1.569–1.570 Physical properties of Kaolinite USES

19 KAINITE Physical properties of Kainite USES Chemical Classification silicate Color Blue, white, gray, green, colorless StreakWhite, colorless. LusterVitreous, pearly Diaphaneitytransparent to translucent Cleavage perfect in two directions, faces sometimes striated Mohs Hardness Kyanite often occurs in long, bladed crystals. These have a hardness of 4.5 to 5 along the length of the crystals and 6.5 to 7 across the width of the crystals. Specific Gravity3.5 to 3.7 Diagnostic Properties color, cleavage, bladed crystals Chemical Composition Al 2 SiO 5 Crystal Systemtriclinic Usesceramics, gemstones High Refractory Material Abrasive Gemstone Automotive and Railways


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