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Minerals They occur naturally in the Earth.. They are inorganic meaning they have never been living.

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Presentation on theme: "Minerals They occur naturally in the Earth.. They are inorganic meaning they have never been living."— Presentation transcript:

1 Minerals They occur naturally in the Earth.

2 They are inorganic meaning they have never been living.

3 They have a definite chemical composition. Halite- NaCl

4 They are always found as a solid. They are made of elements.

5 The atoms of the mineral are arranged in a definite pattern. This repeating pattern is called a crystal. calcite calcite

6 Mineral Identification Color-Look at mineral and see what color it is. Streak- rub it on an unglazed porcelain tile.

7 Luster Luster- Look at the mineral under light and see if it is glassy, pearly, dull. Metallic (also known as splendent) Luster- Look at the mineral under light and see if it is glassy, pearly, dull. Metallic (also known as splendent) Submetallic Submetallic Vitreous (also known as glassy) Vitreous (also known as glassy) Adamantine (also known as brilliant or diamondlike) Adamantine (also known as brilliant or diamondlike) Resinous (also known as resinlike) Resinous (also known as resinlike) Silky Silky Pearly (also known as mother-of-pearl) Pearly (also known as mother-of-pearl) Greasy (also known as oily) Greasy (also known as oily) Pitchy (also known as pitchlike) Pitchy (also known as pitchlike) Waxy (also known as waxlike) Waxy (also known as waxlike) Dull (also known as earthy) Dull (also known as earthy)

8 Some Surefire Signs You're a Rockhound The sign on the side of the road says "Falling Rock" and you pull over to wait. The sign on the side of the road says "Falling Rock" and you pull over to wait. Your Internet home page has pictures of your rocks. Your Internet home page has pictures of your rocks.

9 Hardness Test Was developed by Fredrich Mohs. Called the Mohs Scale of Hardness. 1. Talc 2. Gypsum 3. Calcite 4. Fluorite 5. Apatite 6. Feldspar 7. Quartz 8. Topaz 9. Corundum 10. Diamond Quartz Fingernail 2.5 Penny 3.0 Nail 7.0

10 Crystal Patterns Minerals have 6 Crystal patterns or shapes. Cubic- shape C Triclinic Orthorhombic- shape B Hexagonal- shape A Monoclinic Octahedral- shape D

11 Specific Gravity Mass/Volume=Density Mass/Volume=Density Specific Gravity= Density of Mineral/Density of Water Specific Gravity= Density of Mineral/Density of Water Density of Corundum- 10grams/5ml = 2g/ml Density of Corundum- 10grams/5ml = 2g/ml Specific Gravity of Corundum- 2g/ml/1g/ml= 2 Specific Gravity of Corundum- 2g/ml/1g/ml= 2

12 Three groups of minerals 1. Silicates- The largest group. Made of Silicon and oxygen 2. Carbonates- Made of Carbon and oxygen 3. Oxides- Made of Oxygen and some other element other than Silicon and Carbon.

13 A mineral can break two different ways 1. Cleavage- breaking along a plane surface. 2. Fracture- breaking along a jagged edge.

14 The Hydrochloric Acid test for Calcite. If the acid is placed on calcite if bubbles.

15 Uses of Minerals Halite – (sodium chloride – salt) – Used in human and animal diet, food seasoning and food preservation. To prepare sodium hydroxide, soda ash, caustic soda, hydrochloric acid, chlorine, metallic sodium; used in ceramic glazes; metallurgy, curing of hides; mineral waters; soap manufacture; home water softeners; highway deicing; photography; in scientific equipment for optical parts. Halite – (sodium chloride – salt) – Used in human and animal diet, food seasoning and food preservation. To prepare sodium hydroxide, soda ash, caustic soda, hydrochloric acid, chlorine, metallic sodium; used in ceramic glazes; metallurgy, curing of hides; mineral waters; soap manufacture; home water softeners; highway deicing; photography; in scientific equipment for optical parts.

16 Gypsum – Processed and used as a prefabricated wallboard or an industrial or building plaster; used in cement manufacture; agriculture and other uses. Gypsum – Processed and used as a prefabricated wallboard or an industrial or building plaster; used in cement manufacture; agriculture and other uses.

17 Mica – Mica commonly occurs as flakes, scales or shreds. Sheet muscovite (white) mica is used in electronic insulators; ground mica in paints, as joint cement, as a dusting agent, in well-drilling mud and lubricants; and in plastics, roofing, rubber and welding rods. Mica – Mica commonly occurs as flakes, scales or shreds. Sheet muscovite (white) mica is used in electronic insulators; ground mica in paints, as joint cement, as a dusting agent, in well-drilling mud and lubricants; and in plastics, roofing, rubber and welding rods.

18 – As crystal, quartz is used as a semiprecious gemstone. Crystalline varieties include amethyst, citrine, rose quartz, smoky quartz, etc. Because of its piezoelectric properties, quartz is used for pressure gauges, oscillators, resonators and wave stabilizers. Also used in manufacturing of glass, paints, abrasives, refractories and precision instruments. Quartz – (silica) – As crystal, quartz is used as a semiprecious gemstone. Crystalline varieties include amethyst, citrine, rose quartz, smoky quartz, etc. Because of its piezoelectric properties, quartz is used for pressure gauges, oscillators, resonators and wave stabilizers. Also used in manufacturing of glass, paints, abrasives, refractories and precision instruments.

19 Talc – (Soapstone) –The primary use for talc is in the production of paper. Ground talc is used as filler in ceramics, paint, paper, roofing, plastics, cosmetics, and in agriculture. You will find talc in many household products such as baby (talcum) powder, deodorant, and makeup. Very pure talc is used in fine arts, and is called soapstone. It is often used to carve figurines.

20 Diamond (Industrial) – (Kimberlite) – Machinery, mineral services, stone and ceramic products, abrasives, construction, drilling, transportation equipment. Diamond (Industrial) – (Kimberlite) – Machinery, mineral services, stone and ceramic products, abrasives, construction, drilling, transportation equipment.

21 Magnetism -Magnetite is magnetic Magnetism -Magnetite is magnetic Electricity-Chalcopyrite Electricity-Chalcopyrite Hydrochloric Acid makes calcite bubble, it does not react with other minerals. Hydrochloric Acid makes calcite bubble, it does not react with other minerals.


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