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What is a Mineral pages 103-114 the building blocks of rocks Minerals of Earth’s Crust.

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Presentation on theme: "What is a Mineral pages 103-114 the building blocks of rocks Minerals of Earth’s Crust."— Presentation transcript:

1 What is a Mineral pages 103-114
the building blocks of rocks Minerals of Earth’s Crust

2 Mineral definition A mineral is a natural, usually inorganic solid that has a characteristic chemical composition, an orderly internal structure, and a characteristic set of physical properties.

3 Five characteristics naturally formed inorganic crystalline structure
solid definite chemical composition

4 Naturally Formed Not man made, naturally occurring

5  Inorganic Organic means living so, this means non-living

6 Crystalline structure
The atoms are arranged in a pattern that repeats over and over

7 Solid Definite volume and shape Not a liquid or gas

8 Definite Chemical Composition
Its chemical composition may be written down in a formula and is fairly consistent or within a range   Example: Halite (salt) NaCl Galena (lead) Pb

9 Kinds of Minerals More than 4,000 have been identified
Fewer than 20 are common These are called rock-forming minerals

10 These ten make up 90% of the crust
Quartz Orthoclase Plagioclase Muscovite Biotite Calcite Dolomite Halite Gypsum Ferromagnesian minerals

11 Ferromagnesian mineral
Contain iron and magnesium

12 Two groups of minerals Silicates Non-silicates--
Based on chemical composition Silicates Non-silicates--

13 Silicates—contain a combination of
Silicon, Si Oxygen, O Silicates make up more than 90% of the Earth’s crust

14 Six Kinds of Silicate Mineral Arrangements
Isolated-do not link with other silicon or oxygen atoms Ring silicates—form rings by sharing oxygen atoms Single-chain silicates—form by sharing oxygen atoms Double chain silicates—form when two single chains of tetrahedra bond to each other Sheet silicates—form when each tetrahedron shares three of its oxygen with other tetrahedra Framework silicates—form when each tetrahedron is bonded to four other tetrahedra





19 Nonsilicates 5 groups Carbonates Halides Native elements Oxides
Sulfates Sulfides

20 From page 105 Write name of group
Composition do not fail to write it all! An example of a mineral form each group

21 Silica tetrahedra Lab Part 1
Materials Toothpicks Marshmallows Page 106

22 Silicon tetrahedra lab part 2
Cut out the tetrahedron Arrange tetrahedron to form the six kinds of silicate mineral arrangements (page 107) Glue onto construction paper and label structures

23 O S SO4 single metals group VII CO3 OH PO4

24 Mineral Identification
Minerals are identified using their physical properties. These include crystal form, hardness, cleavage, luster, color, streak, and specific gravity.  

25 Crystal Form Crystal form is caused by the orderly internal arrangement of atoms Quartz is the most commonly identified by its crystal form


27 Two or more minerals that have the same chemical composition but different crystal structures are called polymorphs.

28 Hardness Moh's Scale of Hardness   10 Diamond 9 Corundum 8 Topaz 7 Quartz 6 Feldspar 5 Apatite 4 Fluorite 3 Calcite 2 Gypsum 1 Talc  

29 Hardness of some common objects
2.5 Fingernail 3 Penny 5 Pocket Knife 5.5 Window Glass 7 Steel File   Learn these!

30 Cleavage The tendency of a mineral to break along planes of weakness.
Some have good cleavage, some poor. It depends on the crystal structure and chemical bonds: the stronger the bond the poorer the cleavage.

31 Fracture A break that is not along a cleavage plane
Common type is conchoidal fracture. Ex. Quartz Broken glass appearance Or can be splinters and fibers--asbestos

32 Luster The way light reflects from the surface I. Metallic II. Nonmetallic Greasy Silky Pearly Glassy

33 Color Color is good for a few minerals like copper and turquoise, but is not a very reliable means of identification. The majority of minerals appear in a variety of colors. Impurities can change the color.

34 Streak The color of the powdered mineral Much more reliable.
Drag the mineral across a streak plate. Hematite--reddish brown to black, but usually reddish brown Limonite--yellowish brown  

35 Specific Gravity d=m/v Density = mass/volume A mineral’s density
Densities are compared to an equal volume of water There is no unit Quartz Silver Gold

36 Other Tests Taste Halite--NaCl has a salty taste  

37 Fizz If a mineral contains CO3 it will effervesce (fizz) when you drop dilute HCl (hydrochloric acid) on it. Ex. Calcite CaCO3 

38 Feel Talc has a soapy feel  

39 Smell Sulfur has a rotten egg smell Kaolinite has an earthy smell 

40 Etc Writes on paper--graphite Rusty look—limonite

41 How to Identify Minerals
This film reviews some of the tests covered in your notes.

42 Mineral Lab Test each of the minerals to determine their physical properties, and then identify them using the chart. Fill this in well. This is a major grade.


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