We think you have liked this presentation. If you wish to download it, please recommend it to your friends in any social system. Share buttons are a little bit lower. Thank you!
Presentation is loading. Please wait.
Published byTina Skeens
Modified about 1 year ago
So what is a mineral? What are the characteristics of all minerals?
1. A mineral occurs naturally.
2. A mineral is solid.
3. A mineral has a definite chemical composition.
5. A mineral is inorganic (was never alive)
Of the almost 4000 known minerals, only about 30 are common. The most common are quartz,feldspar,mica, and calcite.
These minerals make up most of the rocks found in the Earth’s crust.
In fact, over 60% of the Earth’s crust is made up of the family of minerals known as feldspar!
Atoms within minerals arrange themselves in certain configurations As crystals grow, they take on specific shapes.
To be able to identify these and other minerals, we need to look at the properties used to separate and distinguish these minerals.
Remember!: Rarely is a mineral identified by a single property. These properties need to be considered together to correctly identify a mineral.
Color is the most easily observed mineral property and the least useful!
Some exceptions to the color rule would be cinnabar, which is always red, and malachite, which is green.
Many minerals have a similar color.
Many minerals can turn colors due to impurities, or they can change colors in various circumstances.
For example, pure quartz is colorless or white, impurities can make the mineral rose, purple or pink!
Discuss the following! How many of the characteristics of minerals can you name? Why isn’t color a very good property to identify most minerals?
Luster refers to the way a mineral shines in reflected light. Notice the difference between these two minerals?
The mineral on the left has a metallic luster, the one on the right, a nonmetallic luster.
There are several terms used to describe nonmetallic luster. Examples could be vitreous, like the quartz on the left, or pearly, like the gypsum on the right.
Other terms that might be used include greasy, dull, and earthy. Can you tell which of these has an earthy luster and which has a vitreous luster? Earthy Vitreous
Streak of a mineral is the color of its powder when rubbed on an unglazed white tile.
The streak is often not the same color as the mineral. A minerals color may vary, but the streak rarely will!
The cleavage of a mineral is its tendency to split easily or to separate along flat surfaces. Cleavage can even be observed on tiny mineral grains making it a very useful property!
Mica is probably the best example as it splits into thin sheets. It is said to have one perfect cleavage.
Feldspar splits readily in two directions, always at or near right angles.
Calcite and galena cleave in three directions. They are said to have three good cleavages.
Not all minerals show cleavage. Those that don’t break along cleavage surfaces are said to have fracture.
Discuss the following! There are four common minerals, how many can you name? Of the four common minerals, which one makes up over 60% of the Earth’s crust?
The hardness of a mineral is its resistance to being scratched. Diamond is the hardest of all minerals, and talc is the softest.
Friedrich Mohs devised a hardness scale. In this scale, ten wellknown minerals are given numbers from one to ten. Lets take a look at the ten minerals used and some of the simple tests.
Talc (left) is the softest and has a hardness of 1. A soft pencil lead will scratch talc. Gypsum is a bit harder and has a hardness of 2. A fingernail scratches gypsum.
Calcite (left) has a hardness of 3 and a copper penny just scratches it. Fluorite has a hardness of 4 and it can be scratched by an iron or brass nail.
Apatite (left) has a hardness of 5 and can be scratched by a steel knife blade. Feldspar has a hardness of 6 and it will scratch a window glass.
Quartz (left), with a hardness of 7, is the hardest of the common minerals. It easily scratches hard glass and steel. Topaz has a hardness of 8 and will scratch quartz.
Corundum (left) has a hardness of 9. Corundum will scratch topaz. Diamond with its hardness of 10 can easily scratch the rest of the minerals.
Discuss the following! Does this mineral show cleavage or fracture? Of the four most common minerals, which is the highest hardness?
Specific gravity tells you how many times as dense as water the mineral is. Pure gold can have a specific gravity as high as 19.3!
Calcite is calcium carbonate, CaCO 3. If a drop of weak hydrochloric acid is placed on calcite, the acid bubbles as carbon dioxide is released.
Malleable Magnetic Radioactive Flourescence Taste
Minerals that can be hammered thin or shaped are said to show these properties. Can you think of a mineral that might be shaped or hammered?
Gold would be a perfect example!
Some minerals that contain Iron, are magnetic and can be picked up by a magnet.
This is the state of glowing while under a ultraviolet light. Some minerals even glow once the light is turned off!
Some minerals, such as this uraninite, are radioactive. They give off subatomic particles that will activate a Geiger counter.
So what is a mineral? What are the characteristics of all minerals?
What is a Mineral? Naturally-formed solid substance with a crystal structure Naturally-formed solid substance with a crystal structure Pyromorphite.
1.The ten most common minerals make up ______ % of the Earths crust What do the properties of a mineral result from? Chemical Composition 3. Define.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Minerals of Earth’s Crust Chapter 5 Table of Contents Section 1 What.
Minerals. What is a Mineral? A mineral is a naturally occurring, inorganic solid that has a crystal structure and a definite chemical composition.
DO NOW List at least 10 items that you came in contact with before school today that contained a mineral.
Chapter: Rocks and Minerals Table of Contents Section 3: Metamorphic Rocks and the Rock CycleMetamorphic Rocks and the Rock Cycle Section 1: MineralsEarths.
MINERALS ARE MADE UP OF SINGLE ELEMENTS OR COMPOUNDS ELEMENTS A SUBSTANCE THAT CANNOT BE BROKEN DOWN TO ANY SIMPLER SUBSTANCE EIGHT MOST COMMON ELEMENTS.
Chapter 3: Matter and Minerals (part II). Minerals: the building blocks of rocks Definition of a Mineral: naturally occurring inorganic solid characteristic.
Objectives Define a mineral. What is a mineral? Describe how minerals form. Identify the most common elements in Earths crust. –mineral –crystal –magma.
Mineral Identification Lab Purpose of Lab: to observe the various physical properties of common rock forming minerals to utilize the combination of physical.
Target 1: I can effectively communicate the 4 components needed for a substance to be classified as a mineral. What is a mineral? It is a naturally occurring,
Warm Up 9/27 1)The most common mineral group in Earth’s crust is the ____________. a. Carbonatesc. Oxides b. Silicatesd. Sulfides 2)What are the building.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu How to Use This Presentation To View the presentation as a slideshow.
Minerals They occur naturally in the Earth.. They are inorganic meaning they have never been living.
S olid S olid Cannot be a liquid or a gas Cannot be a liquid or a gas N aturally Occurring N aturally Occurring Found in nature, not man-made Found in.
EARTH SCIENCE Prentice Hall EARTH SCIENCE Tarbuck Lutgens
Physical Properties of Minerals In addition to the characteristics of minerals which are required for a substance to be a mineral, there are physical properties.
Earth Processes: Part 1: Lithosphere (land) The student will be able to describe types of rocks and the processes involved in the rock cycle. The student.
Minerals 1.Naturally occurring 2.Inorganic 3.Solid - crystalline (orderly) structure. -- Can be elements or compounds.
Crystals. Geologists Found in minerals and have a regular geometric shape.
Crystals. Found in minerals and have a regular geometric shape.
Summer School Geosciences Geology Lecture 3 Minerals.
.:. Minerals are Amazing, Especially Diamonds!.:. By: Avianna Cliatt.
Chapter 4 - Minerals. Mineral - definition Naturally Naturally occurring Inorganic Inorganic Solid Solid Specific Specific chemical composition Definite.
PACT Jeopardy Review Rocks and Minerals/Soils/Fossils 3-3.1Classify rocks (including sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic) and soils (including humus,
Periodic Table of Elements Elements Science has come along way since Aristotles theory of Air, Water, Fire, and Earth. Scientists have identified 90.
Minerals. Fracture Fracture is the tendency of a mineral to break along curved surfaces without a definite shape. These minerals do not have planes of.
Minerals Write down what you know about minerals. What things in this room are made of minerals?
© 2016 SlidePlayer.com Inc. All rights reserved.