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Republic of Turkey Ministry of Labour and Social Security, Directorate General of Occupational Health and Safety and Occupational Health and Safety Center.

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Presentation on theme: "Republic of Turkey Ministry of Labour and Social Security, Directorate General of Occupational Health and Safety and Occupational Health and Safety Center."— Presentation transcript:

1 Republic of Turkey Ministry of Labour and Social Security, Directorate General of Occupational Health and Safety and Occupational Health and Safety Center (ISGUM)

2 Contents Some Statistical Data about Turkey Worklife in Turkey Ministry of labour and social security (MoLSS) Directorate General Of Occupational Health And Safety(DGOHS)

3 WHAT IS A CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE? ACCORDİNG TO TURKISH LEGİSLATION ANY ELMENT, COMPOUND OR MIXTURE THAT; NATURALLY EXIST IN THE ENVIRONMENT or PRODUCED/MANUFACTURED or FORMS INTENTIONALLY OR UNINTENTIONALLY AS A RESULT OF ANY PROCESS OR OPERATION or FORMS AS WASTEPRODUCT OF ANY PROCESS or OPERATION Any other possibility?

4 WHAT DOES ISGUM DO WORPLACES HAVING CHEMICALS? 1.ANALYZE THE PROCESS (COVERED NOW) 2.PREPARE THE LIST OF CHEMICALS USED OR FORMED (COVERED NOW) 3.TAKE SAMPLES WHERE NECCESARRY (COVERED LATER) 4.ANALYZE SAMPLES AND EVALUATE RESULTS(COVERED LATER) 5.EXPLAIN PREVENTIVE MEASURES (COVERED LATER)

5 Analysis of a Sample Process: Iron Production Iron ore is divided into pieces and pellets are formed (floating or magnetic method) It is mixed with the high furnace chimney dust and the coal dust and smoothened in a sintering furnace Hot air is fed to the sintering furnace by a transfer pipe from the high furnace

6 Analysis of a Sample Process: Iron Production The hole at the top of the sintering furnace is opened and the slag and iron mixture is fed to the furnace As the mixture moves down the slag and the iron are separated, The air blown from the bottom of the high furnace is heated up by hot waste gases coming from the top of the sintering furnace

7 The cehmicals at the furnace: Burning product CO 2 Iron (III) oxides reduced to Iron (II) oxides athe bottom parts pure iron is formed by consecutive reducings. The CO 2 formed is reduced again with coke and CO is formed. As the material moves down the counter current gases causes to form calcium oxide and carbon monoxide. The pure iron is poured into baskets Several other chemicals form during the pouring of iron to baskets and production of steel. The rest is not anaylzed for time convenience Analysis of a Sample Process: Iron Production

8 Results of Analysis (For iron and steel together) CO exposure is highly possible especially during maintenance Oil mist (Oil is used in pouring baskets) Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (degrading of oils at high temperatures) Physical agents like heat stress, radiation and noise

9 Results of Analysis (For iron and steel together) Finishing chemicals (painting, production of lead including steel, sin coating etc.) will be mentioned later. DUSTS!!! I want exchange knowladge with the audience about dusts in this process.

10 Process Scheme iron ore + lime stone DUSTS!!! Hot air coke SINTERINGSINTERING Dust cyclone High furnace Hot air Cold air Heated air Gas out Very hot region İron goes to baskets

11 COPPER PRODUCTION SULPHUR DIOXIDE DURING BURNING PROCESS HOW DO YOU MEASURE SO 2 ? CARBON MONOXIDE (Burning Processes) Suplhuric acid is also in the process??? Can we discuss this? 10-16% Sulphuric acid is used in electrolysis

12 COPPER PRODUCTION Metal fumes (Cu, zn, As, Cd, Mo) in copper production Loading of oxygen flash furnace Operating oxygen flash furnace Anodes of electrolysis cells

13 DEGREASING AND CLEANING OF METALS ENCOUNTERED RFEQUENTLY IN TURKEY!! Hazard of these operations are underestimetd in Turkey!! Mechanical cleaning Ultrasonic cleaning Vibration or drum cleaning

14 DEGREASING AND CLEANING OF METALS Chemical cleaning Cleaning solvents Acids Bases

15 DEGREASING AND CLEANING OF METALS Cleaning of metal surfaces with blasting techniques are problematic in Turkey. Sand, some silicates and aluminium oxides used in these operations create hazards. Iron balls, large particulated sand and zinc balls also create hazards

16 DEGREASING AND CLEANING OF METALS Sand blasting device Blasting cabinet How to work with these?

17 DEGREASING AND CLEANING OF METALS The worse case in Turkey was that blast was done in open cabinets and the particle contentartions were very high!!!

18 DEGREASING AND CLEANING OF METALS We are sure that: Silica sand blasting and other blasting operations create respirable dusuts hazardous to lungs. Cyristaline silica and respirable dust must be measured. Lead and Mercury exposure is likely in removing paints from metals.

19 DEGREASING AND CLEANING OF METALS Chemical Degrasing (Underestimated in Turkey) With sovents Direct application (brushing, wiping off etc.) Spreying Immersion

20 DEGREASING AND CLEANING OF METALS Mostly used solvents: Chlorinated hydrocarbons (methylene chlorate, tricholoroethylene etc.)- highly toxic Petroleum based solvents and mineral compounds Alcohols (isopropanol)

21 DEGREASING AND CLEANING OF METALS Chemical degreasing with acids and bases Spreying Immersing Low tempearures are required for fast cleaning When a pH of is required, ultrasonic vibrations are used to increase performance of cleaning

22 Chemical degreasing with acids and bases Acids!? Sulphuric acid, hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, phosphoric acid etc. are used. Fro example, 5-15% sulphuric acid, 10-25% hydrochloric acid are used in o C non- electrolytic baths Samples are generally below OEL's

23 DEGREASING AND CLEANING OF METALS Chemical degreasing with acids and bases Hazardous bases: Caustic soda (local exhaust ventilation is essential) Sodium silicate, trisodium phosphate etc. (not encountered in high concentrations)

24 INDUSTRIAL PAINTING FOR THE PURPOSES OF; Preventing corrosion, Obtaining good view Electrical isolation And special applications PAINTING IS VERY FREQUENT IN TURKEY!

25 INDUSTRIAL PAINTING Unlike degraesing and cleaning, painting is not underestimated in Turkey. Solvents and other industrial chemicals are licenced by İSGÜM and their usage schemes are regularly controlled. Degreasing are cleaning is not that much legislated.

26 INDUSTRIAL PAINTING Recommended Geometry for Spreying What do you recommend? What are the pros and cons of this geometry? Air out Painted object sprey painter

27 INDUSTRIAL PAINTING The chemistry of paints MAJOR COMPONENT CONSTITUENTSPURPOSE VEHİCLEBINDER SOLVENT RESIN THAT FORMS FILM THINNER FOR ADJUSTMENT OF VISCOCITY FİLLERGENERAL FILLER PIGMENT EXTENDER HIDING ABILITY, BODY, COLOR OPAQUENESS COLOR FILLERS THAT BUILD BODY ADDİTİVESDRIERS BIOCIDE FLATTING AGENTS STABILIZERS ANTISKINNING SPEED DRYING PREVENT GROWTH OF MOLD/FUNGS PROVİDE LOW LUSTER PREVENT HEAT AND UV RADIATION PREVENT SKIN FORMATION IN CAN

28 INDUSTRIAL PAINTING CHEMISTRY OF PAINTS, MOSTLY USED PIGMENTS White: Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ), Zinc oxide (ZNO), Antimony oxide (Sb 2 O 3 ), White Lead (2PBCO 3 Pb(OH) 2 )

29 INDUSTRIAL PAINTING CHEMISTRY OF PAINTS, MOSTLY USED PIGMENTS Yellow inorganic pigments Lead Chromates (PbCrO 4 ) Zinc Chromates (ZnCrO 4 ) Yellow iron oxides (Fe 2 O 3. H 2 O)

30 INDUSTRIAL PAINTING CHEMISTRY OF PAINTS, MOSTLY USED PIGMENTS Green inorganic pigments: Chromium oxide (Cr 2 O 3 ) Lead Chrome Greens ( PbCrO 4. KFe[Fe(CN) 6 ] ) Blue Inorganic pigments: Prussian Blue (KFe[Fe(CN) 6 ]) Ulltramine Blue (3Na 2 O 3. 3Al 2 O 3. 6SiO 2 Na 2 S)

31 INDUSTRIAL PAINTING CHEMISTRY OF PAINTS, MOSTLY USED PIGMENTS Red inorganic pigments: Red iron oxide (Fe 2 O 3 ) Black pigments Black iron oxide (Fe 3 O 4 ) Carbon blacks

32 INDUSTRIAL PAINTING CHEMISTRY OF PAINTS, MOSTLY USED PIGMENTS Hansa yellows Benzidine yellow Pigment Green B Phthalocyanine blue Toluidine reds Arylamide reds

33 INDUSTRIAL PAINTING SOLVENTS!!! Aromatic solvents: Benzene Toluene Xylene Aromatic naphthas Aromatic petroleum solvents

34 INDUSTRIAL PAINTING SOLVENTS!!! Aliphatic Solvents Petroleum etjher Lacquer diluent Mineral spirits Kerosene High flash naphthas

35 INDUSTRIAL PAINTING SOLVENTS!!! Glycol Ethers Chlorinated solvents: Methyl chloride Chlorothene Carbon tetrachloride Trichloroethylene Percholroethylene

36 INDUSTRIAL PAINTING SOLVENTS!!! Trepenes: Turpentine Dipentene Pine oil

37 INDUSTRIAL PAINTING SOLVENTS!!! Alcohols Methanol Ethanol Isopropyl alcohol n-propyl alcohol N-butyl alcohol Secondary butyl alcohol Cyclohexanol

38 INDUSTRIAL PAINTING SOLVENTS!!! Acetates: Ethyl- Isopropyl- n-Propyl- Secondary butyl- N-butyl-

39 INDUSTRIAL PAINTING SOLVENTS!!! Ketones Acetone MEK Mathyl acetone Methyl isobutyl ketone Diacetone Cylcloheanone Diisobuyly ketone

40 INDUSTRIAL PAINTING Resins? (are they very hazardous?) Acyrilic resin: Polyvinilyidene compunds Alkyd resin: Interaction of a polycarboxylic or fatty acid or its anhydride, a polyhydric alcohol (eg. glycol) and a vegatble oil or its fatty acid.

41 INDUSTRIAL PAINTING Resins? (İnhaled?) Amino resins: condensation polymerization of an aldehyde with an amine or amide Epoxy resins: Condensation polymerization between epichlorodyrin OTHER RESİNS: Touched with bare hands I want to discuss with the audience

42 INDUSTRIAL PAINTING Example operation: car painting SolventHighest (ppm)Mean(ppm) Toluene Xylene365.8 Butyl acetate Methyl isobutyl ketone Isporopanol Ethyl acetate Acetone 253.1

43 FINAL SLIGHT I WOULD LIKE TO DISCUSS WITH THE AUDIENCE THE HAZARDS OF THE CONCENTRATIONS GIVEN AND THE POSSIBILITES OF BETTER GEOMETRY FOR SPREY PAINTING THANK YOU TERIMA KASIH


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