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 Extraction of iron Done by: Goh Cheng Yen G10 Amber.

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1  Extraction of iron Done by: Goh Cheng Yen G10 Amber

2 How??  Iron can be obtained by reduction of iron ore in a blast furnace.  Three substances are needed:  Iron ore, haematite (Fe 2 O 3 ).  Limestone(calcium carbonate).  Coke- mainly carbon.  The combined mixture of these three is called charge.

3 Blast furnace  A furnace is normally a steel tower 30 meters high.  The charge is place into the furnace.  And a series of reaction happens.  Hot air is sent into through the holes near the bottom of the furnace.

4 Role of coke  The coke is burnt in the base of the furnace (around 1900 o C) to form carbon dioxide.  Carbon dioxide produced rises and reacts with more coke.

5 Formation of iron  Iron ore is reduced by carbon monoxide to from molten iron.  Note: This is a reduction reaction.

6 Role of limestone  The iron ore contains a major impurity, sand, silica(SiO 2 ).  Limestone is used to remove this impurity from the iron ore.  The limestone decomposes first to form lime.  Then reacts with the silica to form calcium silicate.  The calcium silicate produced is also called slag,

7  The molten iron and molten slag flows down to the bottom of the furnace.  The slag and the iron doesn’t mix as the slag is less dense and forms on top.  The slag can be used to make roads. End result

8 Summary

9 Uses of iron made by blast furnace  The iron produced from blast furnace is called “Pig iron” or “Cast iron”.  Contains 4% carbon and other impurities.  The carbon makes the iron brittle thus limiting its usefulness.  Most of them are used for steel making.

10 Environmental and health issues  Air pollutants  Sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide.  Steel making industry is a major carbon dioxide releasing source causing greenhouse effect.  Waste water contamination  Oil, grease, heavy metal and suspended solid.  Solid waste  Coal, coke dust.

11 Future  Nowadays, more energy and material saving technologies are being produced.  More waste from the blast furnace is being recycled.  Organizations such as the UNEP, United Nation Environment Programme and the IISI, the first international industry association devoted to a single industry are working hard to tackle these problems.

12 Waste generated and recycled in steel production in Japan

13 APA Blast furnace Retrieved from metals/revise-it/the-blast-furnace Richard Harwood and Ian Lodge Cambridge IGCSE Chemistry Coursebook. UK: Cambridge University Press Spiegel, Jerry Environmental and health issue. Retrieved from environmental-and-public-health-issues

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