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Extraction of metals Only some unreactive metals such as silver, gold and platinum can occur freely in nature. Most metals react with other elements to.

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Presentation on theme: "Extraction of metals Only some unreactive metals such as silver, gold and platinum can occur freely in nature. Most metals react with other elements to."— Presentation transcript:

1 Extraction of metals Only some unreactive metals such as silver, gold and platinum can occur freely in nature. Most metals react with other elements to form ores.

2 Major steps in extraction of metal
Ore concentration Ore is purified and concentrated, unwanted rocks removed Reduction to crude metal Metal oxides to be reduced to metals, resulting in a mixture of metals collected Refining to obtain pure metal To obtain a specific metal, purify and remove unwanted metal impurities

3 the extraction of metals
Method of extraction depends on the position of the metal in the reactivity series. extraction of metal involves: getting rid of the unwanted rock to obtain concentrated form of the mineral obtaining pure metal from the mineral by chemical reactions

4 the extraction of metals
Metals at the top of the reactivity series are very reactive: bonds in their compounds are very strong must be extracted by decomposing their compounds with electricity in an expensive process called electrolysis aluminium is extracted from aluminium oxide by passing an electric current through it 2Al2O Al + 3O2

5 Ways of Extraction Potassium K
Sodium Na Calcium Ca Magnesium Mg Aluminium Al Zinc Zn Iron Fe Tin Sn Lead Pb Copper Cu Mercury Hg Silver Ag Gold Au Platinum Pt Extracted by electrolysis of molten chlorides Extraction by electrolysis of molten Al2O3 dissolved in cryolite Extraction by reduction of oxides using carbon Roasting ore by heating alone

6 Extraction of Iron

7 Raw materials of extraction of Iron
Iron Ore eg haematite ore [iron(III) oxide, Fe2O3] Coke carbon, C Hot air for the O2 in it Limestone calcium carbonate, CaCO3

8 Stage 1 – Production of carbon dioxide
The coke is ignited at the base and hot air blown in to burn the coke (carbon) to form carbon dioxide C(s) + O2(g)  CO2(g) The limestone is decomposed by heat to produce carbon dioxide & quicklime CaCO3(s)  CaO(s) + CO2(g)

9 Stage 2 – Production of carbon monoxide
At high temperature, the carbon dioxide formed reacts with more coke (carbon) to form carbon monoxide CO2(g) + C(s)  2CO(g)

10 Stage 3 – Reduction of haematite
The carbon monoxide removes the oxygen from the iron oxide ore. This frees the iron, which is molten at the high blast furnace temperature, and flows down to the base of the blast furnace. Fe2O3(s) + 3CO(g)  2Fe(l) + 3CO2(g) Other possible ore reduction reactions are ... Fe2O3(s) + 3C(s)  2Fe(l) + 3CO(g) 2Fe2O3 (s) + 3C(s)  4Fe(l) + 3CO2 (g)

11 Stage 3 – Reduction of haematite
Waste gases escape through the top of the furnace Eg. Carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen…

12 Stage 4 – Removal of Impurities
The original ore contains silica (SiO2, silicon dioxide). These react with limestone to form a molten slag of e.g. calcium silicate in 2 stages CaCO3  CaO + CO2 CaO + SiO2  CaSiO3 The molten slag forms a layer above the more dense molten iron and can be separately, and regularly, drained away. The iron is cooled and cast into pig iron ingots / transferred directly to a steel producing furnace Slag can be used for road surfacing


14 Why Steel? Steel is iron that has most of the impurities removed. Steel also has a consistent concentration of carbon throughout (0.5 percent to 1.5 percent) Impurities like silica, phosphorous and sulphur weaken steel tremendously, so they must be eliminated The advantage of steel over iron is greatly improved strength

15 Pig Iron to Steel Using Basic Oxygen Furnace
Pear-shaped furnace, lined with refractory bricks, that refines molten iron from the blast furnace and scrap into steel Scrap is dumped into the furnace vessel Followed by the hot metal from the blast furnace. A high-pressure stream of oxygen is blown into it to cause chemical reactions that separate impurities as fumes or slag Once refined, the liquid steel and slag are poured into separate containers



18 Types of Steel Steel Percentage of carbon Mild carbon steel
Up to 0.25% High carbon steel 0.45% % Stainless steel – alloy Little carbon, with chromium & nickel

19 Properties of Steel Can be changed by the use of controlled additives
Eg. Carbon, chromium, nickel, manganese, silicon etc…

20 Uses of Steel Steel Uses Mild carbon steel – strong, hard & malleable
Make steel parts in car bodies , machineries High carbon steel – strong but brittle Make knives, hammer, cutting tools Stainless steel – does not rust Pipes & tanks in chemical plants, making cutlery, surgical instruments

21 Alloy Mixture of a metal with other elements
Element in the largest proportion is the base metal Elements in smaller proportions are the alloying elements


23 Metals Soft Low resistance to corrosion High m.p Easy to shape

24 Alloys Have different physical properties compared to their constituent elements Produce mainly for: Improving strength and hardness Improving resistance towards corrosion Improving appearance of metal Lower m.p of metal

25 Extraction of Aluminium from Bauxite
Raw materials Bauxite: ore containing hydrated aluminium oxide Al2O3.2H2O M.p: ~2000C Molten Cryolite aka sodium aluminium fluoride Na3AlF6 used to lower m.p to ~900C Carbon electrodes

26 Extraction of Aluminium
Cryolite is added to lower the melting point & to dissolve the ore & bauxite ore of aluminium oxide is continuously added When p.d is applied, Al3+ is attracted to the negative cathode O2- is attracted to the positive anode

27 Extraction of Aluminium
At the cathode, Al3+ gains 3 electrons from the cathode to form molten aluminium, which is tapped off Al3+(l) + 3e-  Al (l) At the anode, O2- loses 2 electrons to the anode to form oxygen 2O2-(l)  O2(g) + 4e- Oxygen released attacks carbon anode, to form Carbon monoxide/dioxide. Carbon anode dissolved. Needs to be replaced regularly


29 Anodising Form of electroplating using oxygen, used commonly for aluminium Aluminium when exposed in air forms a thin protective coat of aluminium oxide For better protection, a thicker coat is made Through the process: Anodising

30 Anodising Make aluminium the anode in sulphuric acid bath
Oxygen produced at the anode then combines with aluminium to form a protective porous layer aluminium oxide 1000 times thicker, compared when exposed to air Pores can be sealed by dipping into hot water or coloured by using dyes which can be absorbed into it

31 Uses of Aluminium Uses Properties Overhead electric cables
Low density, light Resistant to corrosion (protected by aluminium oxide) Good electrical conductivity Food containers Non-toxic Resistant to corrosion Good conductor of heat Aircraft body High tensile strength

32 Conditions for Corrosion of Iron
Presence of oxygen Presence of water Presence of sodium chloride/acidic pollutants speed up rusting Rusting is an exothermic redox reaction where iron is oxidized to form hydrated iron(III) oxide 4Fe(s) + 3O2(g) + 2xH2O(l)  2Fe2O3.xH2O (s)

33 Prevention of rusting Use of protective layer
Painting – Used in cars, ships, bridges Greasing – Tools & machine parts Zinc plating(Galvanising) – Zinc roofs Tin plating – Food cans Creates barrier around the metal preventing contact with oxygen and water

34 Sacrificial protection
More reactive metal, eg, Magnesium or zinc is attached to iron or steel Protects by sacrificing itself, corrodes first since it is more reactive Iron will not rust in the presence of a more reactive metal Used in underground pipes, ships, steel piers

35 Alloying Addition of nickel and chromium to iron
Chromium (III) oxide Cr2O3 on the surface protects iron from corrosion Used in cutlery, surgical instruments, pipes & tanks in chemical plants

36 Finite Resource Metal ores – finite resource, will be used up
Need to recycle metals Save resources and solves litter disposal Saves energy Saves costs

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