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The ’60s The Civil Rights Movement Segregation The civil rights movement was a political, legal, and social struggle to gain full citizenship rights.

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Presentation on theme: "The ’60s The Civil Rights Movement Segregation The civil rights movement was a political, legal, and social struggle to gain full citizenship rights."— Presentation transcript:

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3 The ’60s

4 The Civil Rights Movement

5 Segregation The civil rights movement was a political, legal, and social struggle to gain full citizenship rights for African Americans. The civil rights movement was a political, legal, and social struggle to gain full citizenship rights for African Americans.civil rights movementcivil rights movement The civil rights movement was first and foremost a challenge to segregation. The civil rights movement was first and foremost a challenge to segregation.

6 Segregation Segregation was an attempt by many whites to separate the races in every aspect of daily life. Segregation was an attempt by many whites to separate the races in every aspect of daily life.

7 Segregation Segregation became common in Southern states following the end of Reconstruction in States began to pass laws that specified certain places “For Whites Only” and others for “Colored.” Segregation became common in Southern states following the end of Reconstruction in States began to pass laws that specified certain places “For Whites Only” and others for “Colored.” Drinking fountain on county courthouse lawn, Halifax, North Carolina; Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, FSA/OWI Collection, [reproduction number, e.g., LC-USF C]

8 Segregation African Americans had separate schools, transportation, restaurants, and parks, many of which were poorly funded and inferior to those of whites. African Americans had separate schools, transportation, restaurants, and parks, many of which were poorly funded and inferior to those of whites. Negro going in colored entrance of movie house on Saturday afternoon, Belzoni, Mississippi Delta, Mississippi Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, FSA/OWI Collection, [reproduction number, e.g., LC- USF C]

9 Segregation Voting requirements included the ability to read and write, property ownership, and paying a poll tax. Voting requirements included the ability to read and write, property ownership, and paying a poll tax. "By the way, what's the big word?"

10 Segregation The NAACP became one of the most important organizations. It relied mainly on legal strategies that challenged segregation and discrimination in the courts. The NAACP became one of the most important organizations. It relied mainly on legal strategies that challenged segregation and discrimination in the courts. 20th Annual session of the N.A.A.C.P., , Cleveland, Ohio Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C.; LC- USZ

11 School Desegregation In May 1954, the Court issued its landmark ruling in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, stating racially segregated education was unconstitutional. In May 1954, the Court issued its landmark ruling in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, stating racially segregated education was unconstitutional.Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Desegregate the schools! Vote Socialist Workers : Peter Camejo for president, Willie Mae Reid for vice-president. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C.; LC-USZ

12 School Desegregation Southern reaction included firing school employees who showed willingness to seek integration, closing public schools rather than desegregating, and boycotting all public education that was integrated. Southern reaction included firing school employees who showed willingness to seek integration, closing public schools rather than desegregating, and boycotting all public education that was integrated.

13 School Desegregation Virtually no schools in the South segregated their schools in the first years following the Brown decision. Virtually no schools in the South segregated their schools in the first years following the Brown decision. In 1957, Governor Orval Faubus defied a federal court order to admit nine African American students to Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas. In 1957, Governor Orval Faubus defied a federal court order to admit nine African American students to Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas.Little Rock, Arkansas.Little Rock, Arkansas. President Dwight Eisenhower sent federal troops to enforce desegregation. President Dwight Eisenhower sent federal troops to enforce desegregation.

14 School Desegregation Schools were desegregated only in theory because racially segregated neighborhoods led to segregated schools. Schools were desegregated only in theory because racially segregated neighborhoods led to segregated schools. Some school districts began busing students to schools outside their neighborhoods in the 1970s. Some school districts began busing students to schools outside their neighborhoods in the 1970s.

15 School Desegregation Ku Klux Klan terror, including intimidation and murder, was widespread in the South, though Klan activities were not always reported in the media. Ku Klux Klan terror, including intimidation and murder, was widespread in the South, though Klan activities were not always reported in the media.

16 The Montgomery Bus Boycott Despite threats and violence, the civil rights movement quickly moved beyond school desegregation to challenge segregation in other areas. Despite threats and violence, the civil rights movement quickly moved beyond school desegregation to challenge segregation in other areas. In December 1955, Rosa Parks, was told to give up her seat on a city bus to a white person. In December 1955, Rosa Parks, was told to give up her seat on a city bus to a white person.Rosa Parks,Rosa Parks,

17 The Montgomery Bus Boycott When Parks refused to move, she was arrested. When Parks refused to move, she was arrested. The local NAACP, led by Edgar D. Nixon, recognized that the arrest of Parks might rally local African Americans to protest segregated buses. The boycott had already been planned by the Montgomery Improvement Association. The local NAACP, led by Edgar D. Nixon, recognized that the arrest of Parks might rally local African Americans to protest segregated buses. The boycott had already been planned by the Montgomery Improvement Association. Woman fingerprinted. Mrs. Rosa Parks, Negro seamstress, whose refusal to move to the back of a bus touched off the bus boycott in Montgomery, Ala. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C.; LC-USZ

18 The Montgomery Bus Boycott The community had previously planned a boycott of the buses and overnight one was begun. The community had previously planned a boycott of the buses and overnight one was begun. The bus boycott was an immediate success, with almost unanimous support from the African Americans in Montgomery. The bus boycott was an immediate success, with almost unanimous support from the African Americans in Montgomery.

19 The Montgomery Bus Boycott The boycott lasted for more than a year, expressing to the nation the determination of African Americans in the South to end segregation. The boycott lasted for more than a year, expressing to the nation the determination of African Americans in the South to end segregation. In November 1956, a federal court ordered Montgomery’s buses desegregated and the boycott ended in victory. In November 1956, a federal court ordered Montgomery’s buses desegregated and the boycott ended in victory. Judge Frank Johnson

20 The Montgomery Bus Boycott King’s involvement in the protest made him a national figure. Through his eloquent appeals to Christian brotherhood and American idealism he attracted people both inside and outside the South. King’s involvement in the protest made him a national figure. Through his eloquent appeals to Christian brotherhood and American idealism he attracted people both inside and outside the South.

21 Sit-Ins On February 1, 1960, four freshmen from North Carolina A&T University began protesting racial segregation in restaurants by sitting at “White Only” lunch counters and waiting to be served. On February 1, 1960, four freshmen from North Carolina A&T University began protesting racial segregation in restaurants by sitting at “White Only” lunch counters and waiting to be served. Sit-ins in a Nashville store Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C.; LC-USZ

22 Sit-Ins This was not a new form of protest, but the response to the sit-ins spread throughout North Carolina, and within weeks sit-ins were taking place in cities across the South. This was not a new form of protest, but the response to the sit-ins spread throughout North Carolina, and within weeks sit-ins were taking place in cities across the South.sit-ins

23 Sit-Ins Ella Baker believed that SNCC civil rights activities should be based in individual African American communities. Ella Baker believed that SNCC civil rights activities should be based in individual African American communities. SNCC adopted Baker’s approach and focused on making changes in local communities, rather than striving for national change. SNCC adopted Baker’s approach and focused on making changes in local communities, rather than striving for national change. [Ella Baker] Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C.; LC-USZ

24 Freedom Riders The Freedom Riders, both African American and white, traveled the South in buses to test the a 1960 U.S. Supreme Court decision declaring segregation illegal in bus stations open to interstate travel. The Freedom Riders, both African American and white, traveled the South in buses to test the a 1960 U.S. Supreme Court decision declaring segregation illegal in bus stations open to interstate travel.

25 Freedom Rides

26 Freedom Riders The Freedom Rides began in Washington, D.C. Except for some violence in Rock Hill, South Carolina, the trip was peaceful until the buses reached Alabama, where violence erupted. The Freedom Rides began in Washington, D.C. Except for some violence in Rock Hill, South Carolina, the trip was peaceful until the buses reached Alabama, where violence erupted. In Anniston, Alabama, one bus was burned and some riders were beaten. In Anniston, Alabama, one bus was burned and some riders were beaten. In Birmingham, a mob attacked the riders when they got off the bus. In Birmingham, a mob attacked the riders when they got off the bus. The riders suffered even more severe beatings in Montgomery. The riders suffered even more severe beatings in Montgomery.

27 Freedom Riders The administration of President John F. Kennedy stepped in to protect the Freedom Riders when it was clear that Alabama officials would not guarantee their safe travel. The administration of President John F. Kennedy stepped in to protect the Freedom Riders when it was clear that Alabama officials would not guarantee their safe travel.

28 Freedom Riders The riders continued on to Jackson, Mississippi, where they were arrested and imprisoned at the state penitentiary. The riders continued on to Jackson, Mississippi, where they were arrested and imprisoned at the state penitentiary. The Freedom Rides caught the attention of the American public. The Freedom Rides caught the attention of the American public.

29 Desegregating Southern Universities In 1962, James Meredith—Applied for admission to the University of Mississippi. In 1962, James Meredith—Applied for admission to the University of Mississippi. A federal court ordered the university to desegregate and accept Meredith. A federal court ordered the university to desegregate and accept Meredith.

30 Desegregating Southern Universities Kennedy sent federal troops to protect Meredith when he went to enroll. Kennedy sent federal troops to protect Meredith when he went to enroll. During his first night on campus, a riot broke out when whites began to harass the federal marshals. During his first night on campus, a riot broke out when whites began to harass the federal marshals. In the end, two people were killed and several hundred were wounded. In the end, two people were killed and several hundred were wounded.

31 Desegregating Southern Universities In 1963, the governor of Alabama, George C. Wallace, tried to block the desegregation of the University of Alabama. The Kennedy administration responded with the full power of the federal government, including the U.S. Army. In 1963, the governor of Alabama, George C. Wallace, tried to block the desegregation of the University of Alabama. The Kennedy administration responded with the full power of the federal government, including the U.S. Army.

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33 The March on Washington Civil rights leaders pressured both Kennedy and Congress to pass civil rights legislation. The leaders planned a March on Washington to take place in August Civil rights leaders pressured both Kennedy and Congress to pass civil rights legislation. The leaders planned a March on Washington to take place in August I Have A Dream

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35 The March on Washington Randolph was present at the march in 1963, along with the leaders of the NAACP, CORE, SCLC, the Urban League, and SNCC. Randolph was present at the march in 1963, along with the leaders of the NAACP, CORE, SCLC, the Urban League, and SNCC. A. Philip Randolph had the original idea for the march during WW II. A. Philip Randolph had the original idea for the march during WW II. Roy Wilkins with a few of the 250,000 participants on the Mall heading for the Lincoln Memorial in the NAACP march on Washington on August 28, 1963] Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C.; LC-USZ

36 The March on Washington Martin Luther King, Jr., addressed more than 200,000 people. Martin Luther King, Jr., addressed more than 200,000 people. His “I Have a Dream” speech became famous for the way in which it expressed the ideals of the civil rights movement. His “I Have a Dream” speech became famous for the way in which it expressed the ideals of the civil rights movement.

37 The March on Washington Over fierce opposition, Johnson pushed the Civil Rights Act of 1964 through Congress. Over fierce opposition, Johnson pushed the Civil Rights Act of 1964 through Congress. Civil Rights Act of 1964 Civil Rights Act of 1964 It prohibited segregation in public accommodations and discrimination in education and employment. It prohibited segregation in public accommodations and discrimination in education and employment.

38 Kennedy and Civil Rights Prior to the violence associated with the Freedom Rides Kennedy did not support King and the movement. Prior to the violence associated with the Freedom Rides Kennedy did not support King and the movement. Kennedy was afraid of losing white democrats in Congress. Kennedy was afraid of losing white democrats in Congress. Kennedy’s death changed Federal support for Civil Rights. Kennedy’s death changed Federal support for Civil Rights.

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40 Voter Registration Starting in 1961, SNCC and CORE organized voter registration campaigns in the predominantly African American counties of Mississippi, Alabama, and Georgia. Starting in 1961, SNCC and CORE organized voter registration campaigns in the predominantly African American counties of Mississippi, Alabama, and Georgia. [NAACP photograph showing people waiting in line for voter registration, at Antioch Baptist Church] Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C.; LC-USZ

41 Voter Registration These activities caused violent reactions from Mississippi’s white supremacists. These activities caused violent reactions from Mississippi’s white supremacists. In June 1963, Medgar Evers, the NAACP Mississippi field secretary, was shot and killed in front of his home. In June 1963, Medgar Evers, the NAACP Mississippi field secretary, was shot and killed in front of his home.

42 Voter Registration SNCC recruited Northern college students, teachers, artists, and clergy to work on the project. SNCC recruited Northern college students, teachers, artists, and clergy to work on the project. The project received national attention, after three participants—two of whom were white— disappeared in June and were found murdered and buried near Philadelphia, Mississippi. The project received national attention, after three participants—two of whom were white— disappeared in June and were found murdered and buried near Philadelphia, Mississippi.

43 Voter Registration When protests at the Selma, AL courthouse were unsuccessful, protesters began to march to Montgomery, the state capital. When protests at the Selma, AL courthouse were unsuccessful, protesters began to march to Montgomery, the state capital.

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45 Voter Registration As marchers were leaving Selma, mounted police beat and tear-gassed them. As marchers were leaving Selma, mounted police beat and tear-gassed them. Televised scenes of the violence, called Bloody Sunday, shocked many Americans, and the resulting outrage led to a commitment to continue the Selma March. Televised scenes of the violence, called Bloody Sunday, shocked many Americans, and the resulting outrage led to a commitment to continue the Selma March.Selma March.Selma March.

46 Voter Registration King led hundreds of people on a five-day, fifty-mile march to Montgomery. King led hundreds of people on a five-day, fifty-mile march to Montgomery. President Johnson persuaded Congress to pass the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which suspended the use of literacy and other voter qualification tests in voter registration. President Johnson persuaded Congress to pass the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which suspended the use of literacy and other voter qualification tests in voter registration.Voting Rights Act of 1965,Voting Rights Act of 1965,

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48 The movement splits Young radicals moved away from King’s nonviolent message. Young radicals moved away from King’s nonviolent message. Malcolm X and the Black Panthers pushed for a more direct and immediate Malcolm X and the Black Panthers pushed for a more direct and immediate change. change.

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50 Malcolm X Militant leader who articulated concepts of race pride and black nationalism in the early 1960s. Militant leader who articulated concepts of race pride and black nationalism in the early 1960s.

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52 Malcolm X As a speaker for the Nation of Islam X spoke for the rejection of both integration and racial equality. As a speaker for the Nation of Islam X spoke for the rejection of both integration and racial equality. X advocated X advocated  black separatism  black pride  black self-dependence.

53 Malcolm X X also advocated the use of violence for self-protection. X also advocated the use of violence for self-protection. After a pilgrimage to Mecca in April 1964 X modified his beliefs saying whites were not innately evil and that there was a possibility of world brotherhood. After a pilgrimage to Mecca in April 1964 X modified his beliefs saying whites were not innately evil and that there was a possibility of world brotherhood.

54 Assassination X was assassinated in a Harlem ballroom. X was assassinated in a Harlem ballroom. Three Nation of Islam members were convicted of murder. Three Nation of Islam members were convicted of murder.

55 Black Panther Party Original six Black Panthers (November, 1966) Top left to right: Elbert "Big Man" Howard; Huey P. Newton (Defense Minister), Sherman Forte, Bobby Seale (Chairman). Bottom: Reggie Forte and Little Bobby Hutton (Treasurer).

56 Black Panther Party for Self- Defense Founded Oct Founded Oct Oakland, CA Oakland, CA Founders Founders  Huey Newton  Bobby Seale

57 Panthers Purpose Purpose  Practice militant self-defense against the US gov’t.  Establish revolutionary socialism

58 Panthers Major Leaders Major Leaders  Stokely Carmichael  Eldridge Cleaver Original six Black

59 Panther’s Ten-Point Program We want freedom. We want power to determine the destiny of our Black Community. We want full employment for our people. We want an end to the robbery by the white man of our Black Community. We want decent housing, fit for shelter of human beings. We want education for our people that exposes the true nature of this decadent American society. We want education that teaches us our true history and our role in the present-day society. We want all black men to be exempt from military service. We want an immediate end to police brutality and murder of black people. We want freedom for all black men held in federal, state, county and city prisons and jails. We want all black people when brought to trial to be tried in court by a jury of their peer group or people from their black communities, as defined by the Constitution of the United States. We want land, bread, housing, education, clothing, justice and peace.

60 Panthers One of the very first activities undertaken by the Panthers was the citizens patrol in which they followed officers around, armed with a gun and a copy of the California Penal Code in order to protect the citizens of Oakland. One of the very first activities undertaken by the Panthers was the citizens patrol in which they followed officers around, armed with a gun and a copy of the California Penal Code in order to protect the citizens of Oakland. They began programs, including a sickle-cell anemia testing program, free clinics, and food distributions. The most famous and successful of their programs was their Free Breakfast for Children Program, which fed thousands of children. They began programs, including a sickle-cell anemia testing program, free clinics, and food distributions. The most famous and successful of their programs was their Free Breakfast for Children Program, which fed thousands of children.

61 Government attacks The Party was targeted by the FBI's, which attempted to disrupt their activities and dissolve the party. The Party was targeted by the FBI's, which attempted to disrupt their activities and dissolve the party.  Used forged documents  Informers  Propaganda  Dirty tricks

62 Decline The Party fell apart due to rising legal costs and disputes resulting from the FBI. Several prominent members went on to join the armed group, the Black Liberation Party, while others (e.g. Eldridge Cleaver) embraced a more moderate, pro-peace philosophy. Many languished in prison for years as a result of FBI cases. The Party fell apart due to rising legal costs and disputes resulting from the FBI. Several prominent members went on to join the armed group, the Black Liberation Party, while others (e.g. Eldridge Cleaver) embraced a more moderate, pro-peace philosophy. Many languished in prison for years as a result of FBI cases.Eldridge CleaverEldridge Cleaver


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