Presentation on theme: "The Civil Rights Movement. Introduction to the Civil Rights Movement After the Civil War 1861-1865, the federal government made strides toward equality."— Presentation transcript:
Introduction to the Civil Rights Movement After the Civil War 1861-1865, the federal government made strides toward equality. Blacks voted, held many political offices.
Fourteenth And Fifteenth Amendments The Fourteenth Amendment guaranteed all citizens with equal protection under the law. The Fifteenth Amendment said the right to vote shall not be denied on the basis of race.
Segregation Segregation became common in Southern states following the end of Reconstruction in 1877. These states began to pass local and state laws that specified certain places “For Whites Only” and others for “Colored.” Became known as “Jim Crow Laws” Drinking fountain on county courthouse lawn, Halifax, North Carolina; Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, FSA/OWI Collection, [reproduction number, e.g., LC-USF34-9058-C]
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) The Supreme Court decided in Plessy vs. Ferguson that separate institutions are okay if they are equal. “ Separate But Equal” Jim Crow laws were constitutional and the South expanded these laws.
Segregation African Americans had separate schools, transportation, restaurants, and parks, many of which were poorly funded and inferior to those of whites. Over the next 75 years, Jim Crow signs to separate the races went up in every possible place. Negro going in colored entrance of movie house on Saturday afternoon, Belzoni, Mississippi Delta, Mississippi Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, FSA/OWI Collection, [reproduction number, e.g., LC- USF34-9058-C]
Two Types of Segregation De Jure Segregation Segregation by law Ex.: Jim Crow Laws De Facto Segregation Segregation by choice Ex.: Neighborhoods
Segregation The system of segregation also included the denial of voting rights, known as disenfranchisement. Between 1890 and 1910, all Southern states passed laws imposing requirements for voting. These were used to prevent African Americans from voting, in spite of the Fifteenth Amendment
Segregation and Voting The voting requirements included: the ability to read and write, which disqualified many African Americans who had not had access to education property ownership, which excluded most African Americans poll tax, which prevented most Southern African Americans from voting because they could not afford it.
Segregation in the North Conditions for African Americans in the Northern states were somewhat better, though up to 1910 only ten percent of African Americans lived in the North. Segregated facilities were not as common in the North, but African Americans were usually denied entrance to the best hotels and restaurants. African Americans were usually free to vote in the North. Still faces discrimination and racism.
Segregation In order to protest segregation, African Americans created national organizations. W.E.B. Du Bois helped create the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1909.National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
Segregation The NAACP became one of the most important African American organizations of the twentieth century. It relied mainly on legal strategies that challenged segregation and discrimination in the courts. 20th Annual session of the N.A.A.C.P., 6-26-29, Cleveland, Ohio Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C.; LC- USZ62-111535
School Desegregation After World War II, the NAACP’s campaign for civil rights continued to proceed. NAACP lawyers like Thurgood Marshall, challenged and overturned many forms of discrimination. Thurgood Marshall
School Desegregation The main focus of the NAACP turned to equal educational opportunities in the 1950s. Marshall and the NAACP worked with Southern plaintiffs to challenge the Plessy decision Argued that separate was unequal. Unequal education led to unequal opportunities for African-Americans
School Desegregation In May 1954, the Court issued its landmark ruling in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka,Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, racially segregated education was unconstitutional overturned the Plessy decision. Vote was 9-0 White Southerners were shocked by the Brown decision.
School Desegregation By 1955, white opposition to desegregation in the South had grown Many believed segregation in schools was a state matter Many believed U.S. Supreme Court overstepped its authority Most schools remained segregated Schools employees often fired if they sought to integrate Some states threatened to shut down schools if forced to integrate President Eisenhower reluctant to enforce ruling
Frustration! Many African-Americans were frustrated and felt helpless Years of discrimination, racism, segregation and poverty Lack of enforcement of Supreme Court decision was proof to many things would not change
Emmett Till (1955) Emmett Till was a black teenager visiting family in Mississippi 1955: Till is murdered by whites for “talking fresh” to a white woman His murder angered many Inspired many people to push for change and enforcement of the law Will help jump-start the Civil Rights Movement