Presentation on theme: "1 The Feminine in Hindu Dharma A Tribute to Hindu Women."— Presentation transcript:
1 The Feminine in Hindu Dharma A Tribute to Hindu Women
2 More beautiful than Aishwarya…. CBS 60 minutes in Jan ’05 features Ash, ‘the most beautiful woman in the world’ according to Julia Roberts Ash surprises the interviewer and takes him to meet someone more beautiful, more glamorous than her! She takes him to a Ganesh Mandir, and prays. She starts each day with a prayer go Shri Ganesh Surrounded by Bollywood glitter, why did Aishwarya still keep the flame of Dharma alive? What did Hindu Dharma offer to her? What is the status of women in Hindu Dharma?
3 Women and the Divine Word (Vedas) Hindus have four revealed texts: Rigveda, Samaveda, Atharvaveda, Yajurveda RigvedaOf the 407 Sages of Rigveda, 21 are women. Many significant hymns are by women. AtharvavedaRecitation of Atharvaveda starts with invocation to Devi: “shanno devirbhishtiye…”. Book XIV of this Veda and sections in other books also attributed to Women Sages (‘Rishikā’) SamavedaRecitation of Samaveda often accompanied by playing of instruments by women. YajurvedaSeveral mantras from Yajurveda (e.g. Sukla YV 5.17) specifically recited by women. CONCLUSION: The belief that women cannot study the Vedas is false, and later concoction.
4 Women as Vedic Deities (Devis) Gayatri, the Mother of Vedas (Atharva Veda ) Both male and female deities are extolled in the hymns ('Apri Suktas') of all revealed texts of Hindus and in the family prayers of all the 10 lineages of Vedic Sages. Devis such as Ila, Bharati, Usha are said to be ‘sweetly smiling, shining ones, splendid and beautiful, possessors of wisdom, teachers of mankind, fulfiller of boons, foremost amongst those to whom worship is offered, mother of Devas.’ Always worshipped with male Devas. Supreme Being referred to in NEUTER gender (e.g., Ekam Sat vipra, Rigveda , has Ekam and Sat in neuter) God is NOT a male God also referred to as irreproachable wife of the worshipper (husband) in Rigveda
5 Veda as a Woman Divine Word (‘Vac’) is considered a Devi. In later Hinduism, Sarasvati is the patron deity of Vedas, music, arts and all learning. Vac Sukta (Rigveda ) dealing with revelation of Vedas is attributed to Rishika Vagambhrina Vedic texts often referred to in feminine. E.g., Shrimati Rigveda Samhita Sarasvati River, the earthly manifestation of Devi Sarasvati gave rise to Vedic- Harappan culture. The Gayatri Mantra, the holiest prayer of Hindus in the Vedas, is often represented symbolically as a Devi in classical Hinduism.
6 I. Shaakta: I. Shaakta: Shakti, the Powerful Devi, Killer of Mahishaasura
7 I. Shaakta: I. Shaakta: Durga, the Beautiful Divine Mother
8 II. Shaiva: Ardhanaariishvara II. Shaiva: Ardhanaariishvara God as Half-Woman In Shaiva tradition, God often represented as a half woman In Vaishnava tradition, Vishnu often incarnates as a woman to preserve and protect Dharma (Mohini avatar) When God is worshipped as ‘parent’, ‘mother’ takes precedence over ‘father’ aspect. Both Women and Men are manifestations of God (contrast: According to the Abrahamic faiths, man was created in the image of God, and women from that man’s extra rib!)
9 II. Shaiva - II. Shaiva - Parvati as an equal of Shiva
10 III. Vaishnava- III. Vaishnava- Shriman Narayana, Vishnu who dwells with Shri (Lakshmi) "Sage Parashar said: O Maitreya! Always a companion of Vishnu and the Mother of this Universe, Devi Lakshmi is eternal. Vishnu is omnipresent, so is She. If She is speech, Vishnu is the object of description. Vishnu is the Law, and She is the Policy. Lord Vishnu is knowledge, she is intelligence. He is Dharma, She is good karma. If Vishnu is the Creator, She is the Creation (that abides eternally with Him). He is the mountain, She is Earth. He is the virtue of contentment, She is the all satisfying. If Lord Vishnu is desire, She is the object of desire. He is the sacred Vedic ritual, she is the priestly fee..." (Vishnu Purana ab)
11 III. Avataras of Shri -Vishnu III. Avataras of Shri -Vishnu 1. Radha-Krishna or Rukmini-Krishna Shri Krishna worshipped together with Radha or with Rukmini In some Vaishnava sects, Radha considered more important than Krishna Independent Hindu spiritual texts with names such as ‘Sitopanishad’, ‘Radhopanishad’ and so on exist, which extol the greatness of the Devis in the divine pairs.
12 III. Avataras of Shri-Vishnu III. Avataras of Shri-Vishnu 2. Sita-Rama Sita-ji, a Nepalese princess, is considered one of five ‘Satis’ (virtuous women) When God is worshipped as ‘Divine Couple’ by Hindus, the name of the feminine typically precedes that of masculine. E.g., ‘Sita-Ram’, ‘Radhe-Shyam’, ‘Uma- Mahesh’ or ‘Shri Vishnu’ Numerous shrines and sacred sites named after Sita (Sitapur, Sitamarhi, Sita ki Rasoi etc.)
13 Conclusion: Feminine Theology - Conclusion: Feminine Theology - A Gift of Hindus to the World Hinduism is the ONLY major religion that worships God also as a woman. All other major faiths see God as a ‘Fatherly’ figure only. Even in Male oriented traditions, Devi plays an important role. In Hindu Dharma, Wisdom/Knowledge, Prosperity, Power etc., represented symbolically by feminine Hindu deities It is not surprising that words denoting the Feminine Power of God, such as Shakti, Kali and so on have become a part of the New Age vocabulary because there is a deficiency of such terms in other organized religions. There is even a perfume launched by the name ‘Kali’ in the west CONCLUSION CONCLUSION : A woman can be a good Hindu and also a feminist at the same time.
14 The Real Bread Giver The Real Bread Giver Ancient Hindu Roots of Feminine Ecology and Environmentalism Entire Universe is ‘alive’, pervaded by Supreme Being : Body of God Earth and Nature are called ‘Mother Earth’ and ‘Prakriti’ (feminine) in Hindu philosophy Ma Ganga: Rivers are manifestations of feminine deities Grains are manifestations of Devi Annapuurnaa Trees and Forests are abode of feminine deities: Sacred groves, sacred trees, sacred plants Mother Cow: symbol of motherly love, sacred animal
15 The Notion of ‘Motherland’ One’s country is always termed as ‘Motherland’, never as Fatherland in recognition of the fact that the land we live in nurtures us lovingly as our own mother. Indians often worship India as ‘Bharatmata’. “Janani janmabhumishcha, svargaadapi gariiyasi” (Sri Rama said that one’s mother and motherland are superior to Heaven) Iconic representation of Bharat Mata
16 There are more than 35 synonyms for woman in Sanskrit. Each synonym explains the role she has play in the society around her. Ex: Stree,Vanitaa, Pradeepadarshini, Kaantaa, Soubhaagyaa.
17 Philanthropist Hindu Ladies – Rani Rashmoni Rani Rashmoni Devi ( ) was the widow of a rich landowner (Zamindar) and managed his estate very efficiently after his death. Once when the Rani was on her way to a pilgrimage to Varanasi, Goddess Kali appeared to her in a dream and asked the Rani to return to Kolkata and construct a temple in that town. Thus was built the famous Dakshineshvar temple (later associated with Saint Ramakrishna Paramahamsa). She also repaired the sacred steps (‘ghats’) on the banks of the Bhagarathi river (distributary of Ganga flowing past Kolkata) and made handsome endowments to the Hindu College (now called The Presidency College) and the Imperial Library (now called The National Library) in Kolkata. She also had a road constructed from the Subarnarekha river (that flows past the town of Jamshedpur) to the Hindu pilgrim center of Puri for the welfare of pilgrims.
18 Women as Warriors, Warrior Queens When the ruler Dalpat Rai of Gondwana died in 1548, Rani Durgavati became the regent Queen on behalf of her infant son Bir Narayan and ruled her kingdom ably for 16 years. The Moghul Emperor Akbar invaded her kingdom in She fought bravely and when defeat was imminent, she chose to commit suicide by plunging a dagger into herself. She may have lost her life in the battlefield but Akbar could not subjugate her loyal subjects completely. OTHER Examples: Hindu Queen Kota Rani of Kashmir pushed back Tartar invaders. Queen Rudramba of Andhra Pradesh punished revolts and evil feudal lords.
19 Rani Chenamma of Kittur Rani Chennamma of Kittur ( ) received training in horse riding, sword fighting and archery in her young age. She was married to Raja Mullasarja of Kittur, a princely state in Belgaum in Karnataka. Her husband died in Her only son died in Chennamma adopted Shivalingappa as her son and made him heir to the throne. The British did not accept this and ordered the expulsion of Shivalingappa. The Rani defied the order. A great battle ensued. The Rani fought the British with great courage and skill. She could not, however, hold out for long. She was taken captive and lodged in Bailhongal Fort where she died in early 1829.
20 Rani Avantibai Rani Avantibai : When Vikramaditya Singh, the ruler of Ramgarh State died leaving behind his wife Avantibai and no heir to the throne, the British put the state under court administration. Avantibai vowed to win back her land from the British. She raised an army of four thousand men and led it herself against the British in A fierce battle ensured and Avantibai fought most valiantly but could not hold out for long against the superior strength of the British army. When her defeat become imminent she killed herself with her own sword and became a martyr in March 1858.
21 Preferring Death to Dishonor To avoid capture and abuse by Muslim invaders, Hindu women committed Jauhar. E.g. Rani Padmini of Chittor lead 700 women into fire pit to escape the lust of Allauddin Khilji Women were soldiers and spies in Vedic, Mauryan and Sikh armies Used their charms to kill invaders and temple breakers Women donated jewelery and money to fund national defense. Unlike other religions, Hindu warfare forbade capturing and abusing enemy women
22 Women and Hindu Sprituality Hindus have been blessed with a continuous, unbroken chain of women Saints, Yoginis, Nuns (Saadhvi), Priestesses (panditaa), Ascetics (Bhikshuni) and Seers (Rishika) who roam all over the world to this day to preach the eternal message of our Dharma. Numerous women Hindu priests and Gurus serve the laity in the United States as well, and preside over temple management, monasteries and other Hindu institutions.Buddhism and Jainism, two offshoots of Hindu Dharma, also have had prominent orders of nuns. Hindu texts are unanimous in declaring that God does not differentiate between men and women. In the Hindu philosophy of Bhakti, or devotion to God, the cowherd women (gopi-s) who resided in the region of Braj in northern India are held as exemplars for all mankind. In traditional enumerations of pious people who were saved by the liberating power of God, both men and women are listed without prejudice.
23 Women in Hindu spiritual texts The Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, the longest text of Hindu spirituality, describes the proceedings of a marvelous spiritual conference in which the great Sage Yajnavalkya was locked in a debate with several Sages on the other side. Suddenly, a woman sage named Gargi Vachnavi rises and says that if Sage Yajnavalkya can answer her questions, all the other Sages will accept his doctrines. It is noteworthy that all the Sages present there accept her as their spiritual leader and allow her to represent them on their behalf. In the same text, Maitreyi, the wife of Yajnavalkya, motivates him to deliver a memorable sermon on the nature of God and soul. Modern India has honored these illustrious women by founding colleges bearing their names. In a long spiritual lineage given in this text, all the teachers and students are listed as sons of their mothers. Yajnavalkya with Gargi and Maitreyi In Kena Upanishad, spiritual wisdom appears to Indra as ‘Uma’ Brahmavidya, a woman.
24 Andal - One of the 12 Alvar Saints Andal - One of the 12 Alvar Saints The Lady who would marry none but Lord Vishnu Andal was the adopted daughter of Vishnuchitta, who gathered flowers for a Vishnu temple in Tamil Nadu. Once, he found her wearing the flowers that he had offered to Bhagawan and was angry. But Andal said that she was married to Lord Vishnu, and the Lord Himself appeared to Vishnuchitta in a dream to confirm this. Andal wrote very soul-stirring songs of devotion (called Tiruppavai) which are sung during the month of Margali (Dec-Jan) in several parts of India. Tiruppavai has been translated into several languages and included in the Shri Vaishnava tradition liturgy.
25 Meerabai the Princess who wedded Lord Krishna Meerabai (16th century) was a Rajput Princess of Mewar who decided in her childhood that her husband was Lord Krishna. She was married to a Rajput prince, but forsaking all formal ties, she traveled between various religious centers associated with Lord Krishna. Her Hindi bhajans (devotional songs) in praise of Rama and Krishna are very popular even today. Meerabai’s soul merged with that of Lord Krishna in Dwaraka when she was 67 years old. Andal-Goda’s songs are recited daily in Shri Vaishnava Hindu liturgy in temples as well as in homes, in India as well as outside India. Her icon is frequently placed alongside that of Lord Vishnu and Devi Lakshmi in temples.
26 More examples of Hindu WomenSaints More examples of Hindu Women Saints Lalleshvari of Kashmir (14 th cent.) Akka Mahadevi of Karnataka (12 th cent.) Kaarikkaal Ammaiyaar of Tamil Nadu (before 600 CE) Muktabai of Maharashtra (13 th cent.) Janabai of Maharashtra (13-14 th cent.) Meera, Akka Mahadevi, Lalleshvari, Andal and other saintly women of medieval India are considered some of the foremost Hindu Sages. Their writings are treated as scripture, and chanted with great regard to this day. Meera, Akka Mahadevi, Lalleshvari, Andal and other saintly women of medieval India are considered some of the foremost Hindu Sages. Their writings are treated as scripture, and chanted with great regard to this day.
27 Shree Shree Ma Anandamoyi In more recent times, Shree Shree Ma Anandamoyi ( ), born in Khera in what is now Bangladesh, was a Hindu woman mystic whose own husband became her devotee, and who was held in great reverence even by Mahatma Gandhi. She traveled far and wide, preaching compassion and spirituality, and was instrumental in the setting up of many hospitals and other charitable institutions. Her Ashram in Bangladesh was recently destroyed by Islamists.
28 Women Saints: Ammachi Women Saints: Ammachi Mata Amritanandamayi, known as the ‘Hugging Saint’ – spreads divine love by embracing her millions of devotees and leaving a profound positive impact on them. Born in a poor Harijan Hindu family of Kerala, she spreads the doctrine of Bhakti Donated Rs 1 billion for Tsunami 2004 relief, offered to adopt all children orphaned in Kerala Opened numerous charitable hospitals, free housing for poor, schools
29 Women Saints: Mata Nirmala Devi Born to a Christian priest in India, she converted to Hindu Dharma Discovers ‘Sahaja Yoga’, which can be practiced by all. Travels tirelessly to preach Sahaja Yoga to people all nationalities and religions
30 Foreign Disciple of a Hindu Saint Sister Nivedita Sister Nivedita (Margaret Noble) born in 1867 in Northern Ireland, met Swami Vivekananda in London in 1895 and became his disciple. She came to India in In India she engaged herself in running a school for girls and young women. After Swamiji's death she involved herself actively in the Indian Freedom Movement. She wrote several books that present different aspects of Hinduism and Buddhism in a very lucid manner for the lay readership. She died in 1911.
31 Mother Mira Aditi Mother Mira Aditi A foreign disciple who became a Hindu Saint ‘The Mother’, was the spiritual companion or the first disciple of Shri Aurobindo, one of the most influential Hindu Sage of our times. She had visions about him even before she met him and became Self-realized/God-realized following the Integral Yoga he was developing/teaching). Originally from France, she followed him to India, where she spent the rest of her life providing spiritual leadership to Shri Aurobindo’s disciples.
32 Ma Sharada Ma Sharada The Widow of a Saint becomes a Saint Sharada Devi (b. 1853), the wife of Shri Ramakrishna Paramahamsa, a Hindu Saint who lived in the 19th century. After Ramakrishna Paramahamsa passed away in 1886, she continued to guide her husband’s followers till her own death in Portraits of the two are worshipped together by followers of this Hindu saint even today.
33 Feminine Spirituality- Conclusions It would be a fair statement to make that of all the organized global religions in the world today, women perhaps have the most visible and prominent presence in Hindu Dharma. Feminine spirituality is not something that needs to be grafted onto Hindu Dharma. It has always been a part of the core of our faith.
34 Hindu Women as Freedom Fighters Sarojini Naidu, the ‘Nightingale of India’ Broke social taboos, had an intercaste marriage Gifted poetess and author, wrote a 4000 line Persian play when she was 14 yrs Injected humor in India’s freedom movement (called Gandhiji a ‘mickey mouse’ and Nehru a ‘handsome prince’) Many other Hindu women fought for freedom, eg. Sucheta Kriplani, Kasturba Gandhi
35 Hindu Women in Social Roles Why does this woman look unhappy? Ans: Hinduism has a mixed record when we deal with the social status of women. It is extremely important to make this admission without any reservations, because we cannot solve problems unless we recognize them.
36 Why does tradition sometimes fail to do justice to women? In the worldview of classical Hindu texts, the wife was not a producer of wealth. Her sphere of activity was restricted to her home, and her family members. She did all the household chores, managed her husband’s wealth, maintained her household possessions, brought up children, cooked food for the family, served her husband and took a leading role in fulfilling several domestic ritual observances. This was true for all traditional societies, and things are changing very fast in Hindu societies today with more and more women exploring opportunities for self-fulfillment outside their homes with the support of their husbands and other family members. In fact, it was never entirely true that women do not produce wealth. Since times immemorial, Hindu women have worked in the fields, as artisans and so on.
37 Vandaneeya Lakshmi bai kelkar (1905 – 1978). Founder of Rashtra Sevika Samiti: Put forth 3 ideals for women: Maatrutva,Kartrutva & Netrutva.
38 Matrutva : Ideal Mother-Jija bai. In Mahabharata, Kunti inspired Pandavas to fight for their rights. She is one of the five ‘panchakanyas’ Jijabai inspired Shivaji to defeat Islamist ruler Aurangzeb and liberate our land from oppression Many grateful Hindu scholars named their works after their wives (e.g, Vedanta text Bhamati) or daughters (e.g., Math text Lilavati) Women made saints out men, e.g., Ratnavali inspired Tulsidas to become a great saint
39 Kartrutva : Achiever Kartrutva : Achiever Ahalyabai Holkar Queen Ahalyabai Holkar ( ) of the princely state of Indore in central India is often held as an example of an ideal Hindu sovereign. She inherited her kingdom from her father in law since her husband and her son were already dead. Ahalyabai ruled her kingdom with great ability, benevolence and compassion for 30 years. Numerous trusts and institutions founded in her memory by both her descendants as well as by others attest to her exalted status in the Indian society.
40 Netrutva: Rani Lakshmibai Ideal Leader The legendary Rani Lakshmibai of Jhansi fought bravely against British invaders in 1857 and died on the battlefield. She is considered the Joan of Arc of India and is glorified in several Hindi ballads and poems. The words ‘Khoob ladi mardaani, woh to Jhansi wali Rani thi’ from a poem in her honor written by the poetess Subhadra Kumari Chauhan are known to every school-going student in the Hindi speaking areas of northern India.
41 Can women in this era make a Difference ?
42 Panditaa: Panditaa: Hindu women as priests A panditaa performing wedding ceremony Social reformers such as Dayanand Saraswati ( ) championed the rights of women to study Vedas and perform rituals like male priests. His followers like Lala Devraj started Vedic schools for women) Upasani Baba in Ahmadnagar and Udyan Mangala Karyalaya in Pune train women pandits and Vedic scholars. In recent years, more women than men have become Hindu priests in Pune. There are now 1000s of Hindu women priests all over the world and are in great demand because they are considered more sincere.
43 Vidushi: Women scholars of Hindu Dharma Dozens of women Sages (Rishikas) in Vedas and Upanishads. Saulabha Shakha of Rigveda named after Rishika Sulabhaa Scholars: Bhikshuni Sulabha in Mahabharata, Women grammarians/teachers mentioned in Ashtadhyayi of Panini, and Mahabhashya of Patanjali. Atreyi learned Vedas and Vedanta from Valmiki. Judges: Ubhaya Bharati judged the winner in a debate between Adi Shankaracharya and Mandana Mishra (her own husband). Upaadhyaaya and Acharyaa: Temples such as Lingaraj (Orissa) show women teachers with both male and female students. Poetesses: Gangadevi (14 th cent) wrote the Sanskrit epic ‘Madhuravijayam’. Many women poetesses in Tamil Sangam literature. Dr Vasudha Narayanan (Univ of Fl), first non-Judeo Christian President of American Academy of Religion is a devout Hindu
44 Hindu Women as Artistes-1 Hindu music and dance has always had a very strong connection with women. Devi Sarasvati is the patron deity of all art, music, literature, drama and dance and her blessings are invoked whenever artists commence their work or performance. Most of the classical dance forms of Hindus such as Balinese (in Indonesia), Kuchipudi, Odissi, Bharatnatyam, Kathak and Garba are dominated by women performers today. Odissi Dancer
45 Hindu Women as Artistes -2 Even in dance forms where women do not participate, their status is quite exalted. For instance, Kathakali dance of Kerala is traditionally performed by men who wear masks of different colors to denote different categories of persons. Interestingly, the masks for women as well as for all divine characters (devas) are painted white in order to indicate their holy, pure and exalted status. Many traditional folk dance forms such as Pandavani of Chhattisgarh are being promoted by women such as Teejanbai. Balinese dancer in Indonesia
46 Melody Queen, Lata Mangeshkar Lata Mangeshkar, a devoted Hindu lady, is considered one of the foremost women singers in Indian film industry. She is credited with singing hundreds of devotional Hindu songs in several Indian and non-Indian languages. She spends a considerable portion of her income on charitable causes such as repairs of temples and is presently engaged in the construction of a hospital in the memory of her father in the city of Pune.
47 M S Subbulakshmi Goddess’ own voice M S Subhalakshmi is likewise the greatest singer of the classical Hindu Carnatic Music style. For her soul stirring renderings of devotional songs from Hindu tradition, she has been honored by numerous prominent religious leaders. She played the role of Saint Meerabai in a celebrated Hindi movie on the life of the saint. A ‘low- caste’ Hindu, she has instituted scholarships for poor Brahmin boys engaged in the oral preservation of Vedic texts in southern India. Performed hundreds of charity concerts for Hindu charitable schools and hospitals. She has sung at the UNO General Assembly. ‘M.S.’ (as she was popularly known), passed away in December 2004, but her voice lives on……
48 Concluding Thoughts Yes! women can make a difference if they realize their responsibility in the society working in the lines of Maatrutva, Kartrutva, Netrutva. “In the past 2,000 years, Christians and Muslims, and most recently the Communists, conspired to wipe out our memories clean of tens of thousands of years of Goddess spirituality in the Americas, Africa, Europe, the Middle East, Central and East Asia, and Australia. I offer this book as a small token of my overwhelming gratitude to the people of India, who in spite of continual invasions by hostile cultures seeking to impose their own religions on the subcontinent, fought to keep the light of inner traditions of the Mother of the Universe alive.” As said By : Linda Johnsen shows that America is also thinking on the lines of reviving the Goddess worship.