2Two or more people who identify and interact with one another. Social GroupTwo or more people who identify and interact with one another.Not every collection of individuals forms a group.Many people with a status in common–women, homeowners, soldiers, millionaires, college graduates, and Roman Catholics–are not groups, but categories, because of limited interactions.
3Not Quite a Social Group CrowdTemporary cluster of people created by an eventA group can have temporal statusA crowd can become a group, then a crowd again.A large gathering of people at a football gameA crowd that begins to riot might be considered a group because of their purposeful interaction.
4Primary Groups Traits Primary relationships Assistance of all kinds Small social groups whose members share personal, lasting relationships.TraitsSmall: friends, familyPersonal orientationEnduringPrimary relationshipsFirst group experienced in lifeIrreplaceableAssistance of all kindsEmotional to financial
5Secondary Groups Traits Secondary relationships Examples A large, impersonal social group whose members pursue a specific goal or activity.TraitsLarge membershipGoal or activity orientationFormal and politeSecondary relationshipsWeak emotional tiesShort term, goal directedExamplesCo-workers and political organizations
7Group Leadership Two roles Instrumental: Task-orientedExpressive: People-orientedinstrumental and expressive are also used to define gender; Ch.13Three leadership stylesAuthoritarian: Leader makes decisions; Compliance from membersDemocratic: Member involvementLaissez-faire: Mainly let group function on its own
8Group Conformity Studies Asch’s research page 164Willingness to compromise our own judgmentsLine experimentMilgram’s research page 165Role authority playsFollowing ordersJanis’s research page 165Negative side of groupthink“the tendency of group members to conform, resulting in a narrow view” consequences?
9Figure Cards Used in Asch’s Experiment in Group Conformity In Asch’s experiment, subjects were asked to match the line on Card 1 to one of the lines on Card 2. Many subjects agreed with the wrong answers given by others in their group. Source: Asch (1952).
10Reference Group Stouffer’s research page 166 In-groups and out-groups A social group that serves as a point of reference in making evaluations and decisions about where resources go, and who gets rewarded and punishedStouffer’s research page 166We compare ourselves in relation to specific reference groups upwardIn-groups and out-groupsLoyalty to in-group downwardOpposition to out-groupsin-groups out-groups
11Group Size The dyad The triad A two-member group Very intimate, but unstable given its sizeThe triadA three-member groupMore stable than a dyad and more types of interaction are possible
12Figure Group Size and Relationships As the number of people in a group increases, the number of relationships that link them increases much faster. By the time six or seven people share a conversation, the group usually divides into two. Why are relationships in smaller groups typically more intense? Source: Created by the author.
13Social Diversity: Race, Class, and Gender Large and homogenous groups turn inward.Members have relationships between themselves.Heterogeneous groups turn outward.Diverse membership promotes interaction with outsiders.Physical boundaries create social boundaries.If segregation of groups takes place, the chances for contact are limited.Networks“Web of weak social ties”; people we know of or who know of us
14Global Map 7.1 Internet Users in Global Perspective
15Formal Organizations Utilitarian Normative Coercive Large secondary groups organized to achieve goals efficiently; date back thousands of years.UtilitarianMaterial rewards for members (functional-conflict)NormativeVoluntary organizationsTies to personal morality(functional-conflict)CoercivePunishment or treatmentTotal institutions (functional-conflict)
16Summing Up Small Groups and Formal Organizations
17BureaucracyAn organizational model rationally designed to perform tasks efficientlyMax Weber’s six elements to promote organizational efficiency:Specialization of dutiesHierarchy of officesRules and regulationsTechnical competenceImpersonalityFormal, written communications
18Organizational Environment Factors outside an organization that affect its operation:Economic and political trendsCurrent eventsPopulations patternsOther organizationsInformal side of bureaucracyIn part, informality comes from the personalities of organizational leaders.
19Problems of Bureaucracies Bureaucratic alienationPotential to dehumanize individualsBureaucratic inefficiency and ritualism (irony)Preoccupation with rules, interferes with meeting goalsBureaucratic inertiaPerpetuation of the organization becomes more important than the goals and the purpose for it’s existenceOligarchy: The rule of the many by the fewHelps distance officials from the public.Michels: Concentrates power and threatens democracy page 174.
20The Evolution of Formal Organizations Scientific Management Application of scientific principles to the operation of a business or large organizationIdentify tasks and time needed for tasksAnalyze to perform tasks more efficientlyProvide incentives for worker efficiencyWhose interests are being served???
21New Challenges to Formal Organizations Race and genderPattern of exclusion“Female advantage”Japanese organizationsValue cooperationOrganizational loyaltyChanging nature of workInformation-based organizationsCreative autonomy, competitive work teams, flatter organization, and greater flexibility
22Figure 7.3 U.S. Managers in Private Industry by Race, Sex, and Ethnicity, 2005
23Figure 7.4 Two Organizational Models The conventional model of bureaucratic organizations has a pyramid shape, with a clear chain of command. Orders flow from the top down, and reports of performance flow from the bottom up. Such organizations have extensive rules and regulations, and their workers have highly specialized jobs. More open and flexible organizations have a flatter shape, more like a football. With fewer levels in the hierarchy, responsibility for generating ideas and making decisions is shared throughout the organization. Many workers do their jobs in teams and have a broad knowledge of the entire organization’s operation. Source: Created by the author.
24McDonaldization of Society Efficiency: Do it quicklyPredictability: Use set formulasUniformity: Leave nothing to chanceControl: Humans are most unreliable factorEach principle limits human creativity, choice, and freedom.Weber: Rational systems are efficient but dehumanizing.
25Future of Organizations: Opposing Trends Movement toward more creative freedom for highly skilled information workersMovement toward increased supervision and discipline for less skilled service workers
26Class ActivityGroup 1: Explain behaviors on an elevator; group or crowd?Group 2: How can we make this classroom more efficient? Is that a good thing, or just more drifting toward McDonaldization?Group 3: After considering the differences between the American and Japanese models of automobile manufacturing (pages 176-7) , which is best and why?