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Organisational sustainability in multicultural environments through the creation of a culture of engagement Dr Rica Viljoen.

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1 Organisational sustainability in multicultural environments through the creation of a culture of engagement Dr Rica Viljoen

2 Doctor in Business Leadership (SBL Unisa) International Organisational Development specialist and practitioner focusing on optimising individual, group and organisational behaviour Focus on creating Engagement in multi-cultural organisations through Inclusivity Consulted to and facilitated in various countries e.g. California, Chicago, Peru, Australia, Spain, Zambia, Mali, Tanzania, Namibia, Zambia, Ghana Associated with numerous academic institutions as subject matter expert e.g. da Vinci Institute, University of Johannesburg, SBL – UNISA and Village of Leaders – Stellenbosch Managing Director of Mandala Consulting Rica Viljoen

3 Topic Description Academic foundation Engagement Creating climate of engagement Unleashing tacit potential in systems Benchmark of Engagement (BeQ) Case study: Ghana, Australia Benefits of Engagement Methodologies that release Engagement Further development of BeQ Conclusions Questions Layout of presentation Organisational sustainability in multicultural environments through the creation of a culture of engagement

4 In today’s competitive, ever changing world, companies strive harder than ever to implement strategy in a sustainable manner and to stay recent in the mind of the global consumer. The people capacity in the system and the interaction between human entities lead to the “amount of energy” in a system to perform. This can lead to a climate of engagement – a system where the tacit potential of an individual manifest and is applied to organisational tasks to the benefit of the individual, the group and the organisation. Topic Description. Other forms of energy is “apathetic” or “disconnected” with obvious human potential losses. Engagement lead to organisational benefits such as customer centricity, productivity, safe behaviour, low turnover and low absenteeism.

5 1.4 Focus groups 1.3 In depth interviews 1.1 Existing Theory 1.2 Case Study 2.2 Post intervention investigation 2.1 Grounded Theory 2.3 Phenomenology Data Gathering Data analysis through Qualitative Methodologies Inclusivity Framework Testing Phase Adapted Inclusivity Framework Identification of Future research Conclusions and recommendations Limitations of study Research Questions 2.4 Content Analysis Introduction Research Design Results of qualitative research process Academic Foundation

6 The Individual The Team The organisation Assumptions About We Assumptions About They Assumptions About Me Respect, Regard, Resilience, Personal Responsibility Support, Leadership, Diversity, Accountability Trust, Alignment, Adaptability to change, Inclusivity, Ethics Within the context of the industry and the country: Non-negotiable pre-requisites for Engagement LEADERSHIPLEADERSHIP

7 The BeQ-model reflects the interplay between assumptions and perceptions alive and well in organisations around constructs that contribute to the unleashing of individual voices, potential and gifts. As the industry dynamics, the country climate and worldview also influence these perceptions, they are also explored. Disconnected <45% Apathetic 45-59% Involved 60-74% Engagement > 75% Internationally Benchmarked Energy is positive, neutral or negative Results of quantitative research process

8 Employee Engagement is defined (Corporate Leadership Council, 2004:3) as the “positive emotional connection to an employee’s work, thus affective, normative and continuance commitment” and "a heightened emotional connection that an employee feels for his or her organisation, that influences him or her to exert greater discretionary effort to his or her work". Engagement

9 Engagement through Inclusivity “…a radical organizational transformational methodology which aligns the doing and the being side of the organization around commonly defined principles and values, co-created by all. It is a systemic approach that focuses on underlying beliefs and assumptions and challenges patterns in the individual, group and organisational psyche, to spend energy and engage in a sustainable, inclusive manner with the purpose to achieve shared consciousness.” Engagement

10 Viljoen (2008) defined a culture of Engagement as “the way in which adult members of a system interact around the Doing and the Being to unleash potential. Engagement is viewed as the output of the energy in the system to perform” The level of Engagement is determined by the systemic result of the interplay between the individual potential, group potential and organisational potential in the context of the specific industry or national culture”. The I-engage define behavioural engagement as defined by Massey (2008) Engagement

11 The level of Engagement is determined by the systemic result of the interplay between the individual potential, group potential and organisational potential in the context of the specific industry or national culture”. The I-engage define behavioural engagement as defined by Massey (2008) Engagement

12 A culture of Engagement- energy on all dimensions OD Interventions New world of work Nature of the world Why we changeEssence of Change New Sciences We change differently Consciousness On Diversity The Individual The Team The Organisation How individuals change How groups change The What Context: Industry South Africa Africa Global Leadership Doing Being Disconnect Apathy Engagement / Commitment Inclusivity Organisation Group Individual EQ Journey Dialoguing World Cafe Storytelling Appreciative Inquiry Organisational Leadership Culture of Engagement Leadership Work attributes State Engagement Trait Engagement Behavioral Engagement How organisations change The way: How we change Mandala Consulting

13 The individual The Team The Organisation Level of engagement Assumptions About We Assumptions About They Assumptions About Me and Society Context National Cultural Level of Engagement

14 Level of engagement Correlates directly to: + - ProductivityAbseetism RetentionTurnover Employee SatisfactionApathy Creativity and InnovationNumber of incidents Safe BehaviourNumber of Accidents Exceptional ServiceMistakes Ability to deal with changeApathy Superior Quality Business Benefits of a Culture of Engagement

15 Inclusivity has benefits on all the different domains: Individual domain:Personal growth, enhanced EQ, Personal effectiveness Higher levels of Consciousness Allowing of differences, Hope, Pride. Group domain:Enhanced group dynamics, Less unconscious group dynamics, Innovation, Creativity. Organisational domain:Trust, Conducive climate and growth, Sense of Belonging, Commitment, Retention of Talent Societal context:Community Building, localization of Skill, Reputable Employer Energy to perform Benefits of Engagement

16 “We are all connected and operate within living fields of thought and perception. The world is not fixed but in constant flux; accordingly, the future is not fixed, and so can be shaped Humans possess significant tacit knowledge – we know more than we can say The question to be resolved : how to remove the blocks and tap into that knowledge in order to create the kind of future we all want?” David Bohm Quote

17 Sustainable Transformation Strategic architecture The articulated and clearly understood concept of the desired future state Strategy translation into Operational terms Leadership alignment Vision Mission Core purpose Structure Core values Core capabilities External Value Prop Internal Branding Leadership Framework Profit modeling Shared views of the present and the future Leadership formulates strategy Change resilience Alignment, Shared understanding Renewed capacity to perform Understanding differences Engagement Insight Leadership Drives and implement strategy Strategy operationalised Balanced Score Card and Values Operational goals Measures Targets Strategic Initiatives Strategic Goals Values Group and Individual BSC Scenario planning IDP KPA’s Behaviours SWOT PESTLE PORTER The DOING Step 1: Analysis The DOING Step 2: Planning The DOING Step 3: Translation The BEING Step 2: Inclusion The BEING Step 3: Translation EngagementTransformational Process The DOING and BEING Final Step: Cementing Optimal people job fit The BEING Step 1: Ensure talent OD interventions

18 Damang Case study

19 High Alignment Safety Focus Language Diversity Low Wellbeing Capability High Risk Taking Decreased Performance Pride Unwillingness to Engage Have voice Sense of Urgency Low Confidence Evident Enablers Outcome Compromisers Manifested Dynamic Inconsistent Perf management Supervisor ‘s Motivation and Leadership Low Acknowledgement Commitment Low Belonging Paralyzed Focus of BeQ Mpira mo ho Focus of BeQ Ghana Case Study SANKOFA

20 Ghana: Drivers of I_Engage

21 Different Value Systems Engage Differently

22 I-Engage formula: Ghana I_ENGAGEMENT =.16*SUPERVISOR_CAPABILITY +.123*TRUST+.1055EXPAT_LOCAL I-Engagement Quotient different for each different environment

23 I_ENGAGE =.125*ENABLED +.103*INCLUSION+.153*CORPOR_CITIZEN +.089*SUPPORT+.078*DIVERSITY I-Engage formula: Australia I-Engagement Quotient different for each different environment

24 I-Engage formula: South Africa I_ENGAGE =.12*DIRECT LINE MANAGER_CAPABILITY *RESPECT+.1032DIVERSITY_ACCEPTANCE +.800FEELING_REWARDED I-Engagement Quotient different for each different environment

25 Hofstede National Cultural Dynamics

26

27 Conclusion Mind the gap!!!!

28 The DOING and BEING are equally important and should be dealt with as such. Building a culture of Engagement is a Radical Transformational Strategy. Hope is created during this strategy – this energy, if not channeled can have negative implications. Transformational leadership is needed to sponsor the process. Leadership strength and ethics on all organizational levels are critical. Emotional intelligence development critical in order to deal with mature system dynamics. Each action has a reaction – creating an inclusive system will lead to exclusion of other systems. Meta-insights gained on Engagement

29 “ It’s not that we need to form new organisations. It’s simply that we have to awaken to new ways of thinking. I believe it makes no sense to spend a lot of time attacking the current realities. It is time to create the new models that have in them the complexity that makes the older systems obsolete. And to the extent that we can do that, and do that quickly, I think we can provide what will be necessary for a major breakthrough for the future.” ~ Dr. Don Beck Quote

30 Questions ?

31 References Agarwala, T. 2003, ‘Innovative human resource practices and organisational commitment: An empirical investigation’, International Journal of Human Resource Management, vol. 14, no. 2, pp Allen, N.J. & Meyer, J.P. 1990, ‘The measurement and antecedents of affective, continuance and normative commitment to the organisation’, Journal of Occupational Psychology, vol. 63, pp Angle, H.L. & Perry, J.L. 1986, ‘Dual commitment and labour- management relationship climates‘, Academy of Management Journal, vol. 29, no. 1, pp Angle, H.L. & Perry, J.L. 1983, ‘Organisational commitment: Individual and organisational influences‘, Work and Occupations, vol. 10, no.2, pp Baruch, Y. & Winkelmann-Gleed, A. 2002, ‘Multiple commitments: A conceptual framework and empirical investigation on a Community Health Service Trust‘, British Journal of Management, vol. 13, pp Benson, J. 1998, ‘Dual commitment: Contract workers in Australian manufacturing enterprises’, Journal of Management Studies, vol. 35, no. 3, pp Bishop, J.W. Dow Scott, K. & Burroughs, S.M. 2000, ‘Support, commitment, and employee outcomes in a team environment’, Journal of Management, vol. 26, no. 6, pp Blau, P.M. 1964, Exchange and Power in Social Life, Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick, New York.

32 References Chang, K. & Chelladurai, P. 2003, ‘Comparison of Part-time workers and Full-time workers: Commitment and citizenship behaviours in Korean sport organisations’, Journal of Sport Management, vol. 17, pp Crabtree, S. 2005, ‘Engagement keeps the doctor away‘, Gallup Management Journal, January 13, pp Deery, S.J. & Iverson, R.D. 1998, ‘Antecedents and consequences of dual and unilateral commitment: A longitudinal study‘, The University of Melbourne, Department of Management working paper number 1, January Echols, M.E. 2005, ‘Engaging employees to impact performance‘ Chief Learning Officer, February, pp Eisenberger, R. Fasolo, P & Davis-LaMastro, V. 1990, ‘Perceived organisational support and employee diligence, commitment and innovation‘, Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 75, no. 1, pp Eisenberger, R. Huntington. R. Hutchinson, S. & Sowa, D. 1986, ‘Perceived organisational support‘, Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 71, no. 3, pp Gouldner, A.W. 1960, ‘The norm of reciprocity. American Sociological Review, vol. 25, no. 2, pp Greenfield. W.M. 2004, ‘Decision making and employee engagement‘, Employee Relations Today‘, Summer, pp Gubman, E. 2004, ‘From engagement to passion for work: The search for the missing person‘, Human Research Planning, pp

33 References Harter, J.K. Schmidt, F.L. & Hayes, T.L. 2002, ‘Business- unit- level relationship between employee satisfaction, employee engagement, and business outcomes: A meta analysis‘, Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 87, no. 2, pp Kahn, W.A. 1990, ‘Psychological conditions of personal engagement and disengagement at work‘, Academy of Management Journal, vol. 33, no. 4, pp Luthans, F. & Peterson, S.J. 2002, ‘Employee engagement and manager self- efficacy: Implications for managerial effectiveness and development‘, Journal of Management Development, vol. 21, 5, pp May, D.R. Gilson, R.L. & Harter, L.M. 2004, ‘The psychological conditions of meaningfulness, safety and availability and the engagement of the human spirit at work’, Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, vol. 77, PP Macey, W.H. & Schneider, B ‘The meaning of employee engagement’, Industrial and Organisational Psychology, vol, 1, pp McDade, S. & McKenzie, A. 2002, ‘Knowledge workers in the engagement equation’, Strategic HR Review, vol. 1, 4, pp Meyer, J.P. & Allen, N.J. 1991, ‘A three component conceptualisation of organisational commitment’, Human Resource Management Review, vol. 1, pp

34 References Mowday, R.T. Steers, R.M. & Porter, L.W. 1979, ‘The measurement of organizational commitment, Journal of Vocational Behaviour, vol. 14, pp Mueller, C.W. Wallace, J.E. & Price, J.L. 1992, ‘Employee commitment: Resolving some issues‘, Work and Occupations, vol. 19, no. 3, pp Porter, L.W. Steers, R.M., Mowday, R.T. & Boulian, P.V. 1974, ‘Organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and turnover among psychiatric technicians’, Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 59, no. 5, pp Price, J.L. & Mueller, C.W. 1986, Handbook of organizational measurement, Pitman Publishing, INC, Massachusetts. Price, J.L. & Mueller, C.W. 1981, ‘A causal model of turnover for nurses‘, Academy of Management Journal, vol. 24, no. 3, pp Robinson, D., Perryman, S. & Hayday, S. 2004, ‘The drivers of employee engagement‘, Institute of Employment Studies, Report 405. Viljoen, R.C. 2008, ‘Sustainable organisational transformation through inclusivity’, DBL dissertation. Available online www:// etd.unisa.ac.za/ETD- db/theses/available/etd /unrestricted/00thesis.pdf


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