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Unleash engagement in multicultural organisations:

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1 Unleash engagement in multicultural organisations:
Inclusivity as the key to sustainable business transformation Presentation at 29th International OD Congress

2 Rica Viljoen Doctor in Business Leadership (SBL Unisa)
International Organisational Development specialist and practitioner focusing on optimising individual, group and organisational behaviour Focus on creating Engagement in multi-cultural organisations through Inclusivity Consulted to and facilitated in various countries e.g. Califoria, Peru, Australia, Spain, Zambia, Mali, Tanzania, Namibia, Zambia, Ghana Associated with numerous academic institutions as subject matter expert e.g. da Vinci Institute, SBL – UNISA and Village of Leaders – Stellenbosch Managing Director of Mandala Consulting

3 Francois De Kock Masters in Commerce (Industrial Psychology), Stellenbosch University PhD Candidate, Erasmus University of Rotterdam, Netherlands Lecturer in Strategic Human Resource Management & Psychometrics Industrial Psychologist (HPCSA) Business associate of various organisations in R&D consulting Partnered with Mandala Consulting to do statistical analysis for Benchmark of Engagement (BeQ) measurement instrument (from 2009)

4 Layout of presentation
Unleash engagement in multicultural organisations: Inclusivity as the key to sustainable business transformation Introduction Theory on Engagement and Inclusivity Unleashing tacit potential in systems Benefits of Engagement Benchmark of Engagement (BeQ) Case study: Mine in Africa Validation of BeQ Next steps of Development of BeQ Conclusions Questions

5 Unleash engagement in multicultural organisations:
Introduction Unleash engagement in multicultural organisations: Inclusivity as the key to sustainable business transformation In today’s competitive, ever changing world, companies strive harder than ever to implement strategy in a sustainable manner and to stay recent in the mind of the global consumer. The people capacity in the system and the interaction between human entities lead to the “amount of energy” in a system to perform. This energy can lead to engaged individuals – a situation where the tacit potential of an individual manifests and is applied to organisational tasks to the benefit of the individual, the group and the organisation. Other forms of energy is “apathetic” or “disconnected” with obvious human losses of human potential. Engagement leads to organisational benefits such as customer centricity, productivity, safe behaviour, low turnover and low absenteeism. Leaders in organisations should understand the art of facilitating employee engagement.

6 Theory on Engagement Employee Engagement is defined (Corporate Leadership Council, 2004:3) as the “positive emotional connection to an employee’s work, thus affective, normative and continuance commitment” and "a heightened emotional connection that an employee feels for his or her organisation, that influences him or her to exert greater discretionary effort to his or her work". Ek dink ons moet dalk die eerste sin the “positive emotional connection to an employee’s work, thus affective, normative and continuance commitment” uithaal want dit definieer commitment, en commitment en engagement is nie dieselfde ding nie. Dalk kan ons net die tweede gedeelte van die definisie behou? Of dalk definisie van Behavioural Engagement uit Macey et al (2008) uithaal. Ek dink dat die bron met die meeste ‘credibility’ van engagement sal die Macey artikel wees, of ook Schaefeli en Bakker, of Salgado ook. Dis vir my belangrik dat ons die ‘conceptual clarity’ behou want hierdie area is maar ‘tricky’, al die konstrukte klink soos mekaar. Stem jy saam met hierdie voorstel, of het jy dalk ander?

7 Inclusivity through Engagement – Viljoen (2008)
Sustainability thorough Inclusivity - energy on all dimensions Individual OD Interventions EQ Journey State Engagement Trait Engagement Behavioral Engagement Group Dialoguing Leadership Work attributes Appreciative Inquiry Storytelling Organisational Leadership Trust World Cafe Organisation The What Engagement / Commitment Doing Context: Industry South Africa Africa Global The Individual Leadership How individuals change Apathy The Team Inclusivity The Organisation Rica, hierdie model is omvattend en dui aan hoe al die prosesse op mekaar inwerk. Ek gaan bietjie devil’s advocate speelFont is nie in al die blokkies dieselfde nie, tipe en grootte en bold, centered, ens. Die heading moet meer prominent wees. Dit lyk nou soos deel van die model. Die heading klink nie baie beskrywend van wat op die skyfie aangedui word nie. Bv. Factors leading to engagement? Of is dit die Inlcusivity model of engagement? Die ‘energy on all dimensions’ kan dalk die ISTJ tipes in die gehoor ongemaklik maak. Dalk moet ons meer duidelik maak dat die ‘pyltjies’ aan die bokant almal intervensies is, miskien met kleure wat anders as die ander kleure lyk. In een blokkie (regs) is engagement/commitment in een blokkie. Dalk moet ons dit split, want ons kan dalk die idee gee dat ons dink dis dieselfde ding. Is die ses blokkies in middel (links en regs) prosesse of uitkomste? Daar is bv. Leierskap, en aan regterkant is daar bv. Meer uitkomste, bv. Apathy? Dit is nie so duidelik in die model wat dit beteken nie. Being Disconnect How groups change How organisations change The way: How we change Why we change Essence of Change We change differently New world of work New Sciences Consciousness On Diversity Mandala Consulting™ Nature of the world

8 National Cultural Assumptions The About individual Me Assumptions
Level of Engagement National Cultural Assumptions About Me The individual Assumptions About We Level of engagement The Team The Organisation Assumptions About They and Society Context

9 Level of engagement Benefit of Engagement – Viljoen (2008)
                   Level of engagement Correlates directly to: Productivity Abseetism Retention Turnover Employee Satisfaction Apathy Creativity and Innovation Number of incidents Safe Behaviour Number of Accidents Customer experience Mistakes Ability to deal with change Apathy e.

10 Factors critical for engagement
Within the context of the country: Assumptions About Me Self Regard Resilience, Efficacy Personal Responsibility Corporate Citizenship The individual Assumptions About We Support, Leadership, Work Attributes Valuing Diversity, Accountability The Team Assumptions About They Trust, Competitiveness, Adaptability to change, Inclusivity, Ethics The Organisation

11 BeQ™ - Benchmark of Engagement Quotient
The BeQ™-model reflects the interplay between assumptions and perceptions alive and well in organisations around constructs that contribute to the unleashing of individual voices, potential and gifts. As the organisational, the country climate and worldview also influence these perceptions, they are also explored. Specific focus on methodology Align Qualitative and Quantitative data World Cafe Story Telling Appreciative Inquiry OD

12 BeQ™ - Primary Objective
Case Study BeQ™ - Primary Objective Understand the underlying mental models of the Case Organisation’s staff and those withing the departments Explore the relations between perceptions that influence organisational commitment and the unleashing of individual voices Understand the underlying assumptions as they pertain to the individual, the various departments and contractor groups, the mine (organisation) and the greater organisation Determine the level of engagement within the organisation, that will manifest in optimal productivity and safe behaviour. 12

13 BeQ™ - Conducting of Quantitative Research
Case Study Results BeQ™ - Conducting of Quantitative Research 13

14 Supervisor Capability Production orientation
BeQ™ Model Within the context of the culture/climate: Level of Voice World View Assumptions About Me Respect, Regard, Resilience, Responsibility The individual The Team Climate Assumptions About We Alignment, Support, Supervisor Capability Valuing Diversity, Accountability that it is a scientific model that study dynamics conducive for production and safe behaviour on individual group and organisational level and that you also decided what additional questions you want to be measured, e.g. translation of strategy. All factors measured were identified by academic and scientific research as pre-requisites for growth in organisations with regards to production and safe behaviour, thus optimising the human capital in a organisation. The Organisation Culture Assumptions About They Safety Orientation Production orientation Wellness capacity Trust, Inclusivity, Ethics BeQ™ Benchmark of Engagement Quotient 14

15 Case Study

16 Case study

17 The story of Case organisation
Sense of Urgency Supervisor ‘s Motivation and Leadership High Alignment Focus of BeQ High Risk Taking Low Belonging Safety Focus Low Acknowledgement Mpira mo ho Paralyzed Inconsistent Perf management Pride Low Confidence Decreased Performance Commitment Language Diversity Have voice Unwillingness to Engage Low Wellbeing Capability Focus of BeQ Evident Enablers Outcome Compromisers Manifested Dynamic 17

18 Predicting individual engagement at the case organisation
I_ENGAGEMENT = .16*SUPERVISOR_CAPABILITY *TRUST EXPAT_LOCAL Individual engagement could be predicted from perceptions of supervisor capability, trust and expat-local relationships. The drivers of engagement were analysed for every department; they were different for each environment. 18 18

19 Drivers of engagement in Case Organisation

20 Mind the gap!!!! 20 20

21 Analysis, conclusions and reports
Once research is complete our research consultants undertake full data verification and oversee collation and input. Data analysis follows, as well as cross-referencing, interpreting and presenting of the findings and conclusions into a full report, including recommendations for alterations and improvements for the future. Our consultants can also be called upon to undertake presentations to key audiences if required. Translation to all that have partaken in the study. Joint action planning to determine corrective actions. Organisational design report to improve climate is presented.

22 Validation process What are the goals we have in mind with the measures? What is the broad research approach? What is the standard procedure we follow with data analysis? What are our preliminary results? What are the lessons we have learned? What are our next steps?

23 Statistical goals We want to trust the meaning of our test scores (i.e., validity in all its forms) Reliable measurement (internal consistency of α = .80, Nunnally, 1978) Simple structure in terms of dimensionality Measure must predict important outcomes Long enough for above, but short enough to be comfortable for client respondent

24 Broad research approach
BEQ v1 Internal properties? Core items Benchmarking BEQ v2 BEQ vBase Related to important outcomes? Model fit? BEQ language Versions Equivalence Norm database In version 1: specified design requirements and assessed, revise content validity by calculating content validity ratio’s with independent reviewers, calculated reliability and factorial validity. Replicated in another major study, found stable replication. Analysed drivers of total scores. Benchmarked against UWES and ACS. Identified shortcomings in design and administration. In version 2: revised scale definitions, revised items, culled poor items, wrote new items, lenghtened scales. Pilot administration Netcare? BEQ Base: Scales with acceptable reliability and dimensionality. Establish concurrent validity with other Benchmark scales, but more nb. link with important work outcomes, i.e. behaviour, job performance, unit performance, CWB, OCB, safety, etc. Explore nomological network, e.g. commitment, etc.

25 Prelim results (v1): Reliability (α)
Lowest (+- .34) (+- .79) Highest .80 Target Reasons Short scales Negatively phrased

26 Prelim results (v1, I-factor): Factor structure is acceptable

27 Prelim results (v1 I-factor): Factors structure is acceptable

28 Concurrent validity: UWES Benchm

29 Preliminary results

30 Descriptive statistics: factors

31 Factor intercorrelations

32 Predictors of engagement

33 Predictors of engagement

34 Drivers Org #1

35 Drivers Org #2

36 Next steps in development
Analyse psychometric properties (v2) in pilot administration Administer v2 to client organisation Last refinements to produce Base version Write test manual and administration guide Assess relation of scores to outcome-measures Cross-validation of model Develop other language versions Assess construct equivalence Develop norm-database

37 Lessons we have learned
Drivers of engagement are sample specific, but supervisor capability plays dominant role Marry quantitative and qualitative approaches Instruments are stable in African context Analyse psychometric properties as evidence of your quality of measurement

38 References Agarwala, T. 2003, ‘Innovative human resource practices and organisational commitment: An empirical investigation’, International Journal of Human Resource Management, vol. 14, no. 2, pp Allen, N.J. & Meyer, J.P. 1990, ‘The measurement and antecedents of affective, continuance and normative commitment to the organisation’, Journal of Occupational Psychology, vol. 63, pp Angle, H.L. & Perry, J.L. 1986, ‘Dual commitment and labour- management relationship climates‘, Academy of Management Journal, vol. 29, no. 1, pp Angle, H.L. & Perry, J.L. 1983, ‘Organisational commitment: Individual and organisational influences‘, Work and Occupations, vol. 10, no.2, pp Baruch, Y. & Winkelmann-Gleed, A. 2002, ‘Multiple commitments: A conceptual framework and empirical investigation on a Community Health Service Trust‘, British Journal of Management, vol. 13, pp Benson, J. 1998, ‘Dual commitment: Contract workers in Australian manufacturing enterprises’, Journal of Management Studies, vol. 35, no. 3, pp Bishop, J.W. Dow Scott, K. & Burroughs, S.M. 2000, ‘Support, commitment, and employee outcomes in a team environment’, Journal of Management, vol. 26, no. 6, pp Blau, P.M. 1964, Exchange and Power in Social Life, Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick, New York. 38 38

39 References Chang, K. & Chelladurai, P. 2003, ‘Comparison of Part-time workers and Full-time workers: Commitment and citizenship behaviours in Korean sport organisations’, Journal of Sport Management, vol. 17, pp Crabtree, S. 2005, ‘Engagement keeps the doctor away‘, Gallup Management Journal, January 13, pp. 1-4. Deery, S.J. & Iverson, R.D. 1998, ‘Antecedents and consequences of dual and unilateral commitment: A longitudinal study‘, The University of Melbourne, Department of Management working paper number 1, January 1998. Echols, M.E. 2005, ‘Engaging employees to impact performance‘ Chief Learning Officer, February, pp Eisenberger, R. Fasolo, P & Davis-LaMastro, V. 1990, ‘Perceived organisational support and employee diligence, commitment and innovation‘, Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 75, no. 1, pp Eisenberger, R. Huntington. R. Hutchinson, S. & Sowa, D. 1986, ‘Perceived organisational support‘, Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 71, no. 3, pp Gouldner, A.W. 1960, ‘The norm of reciprocity. American Sociological Review, vol. 25, no. 2, pp Greenfield. W.M. 2004, ‘Decision making and employee engagement‘, Employee Relations Today‘, Summer, pp Gubman, E. 2004, ‘From engagement to passion for work: The search for the missing person‘, Human Research Planning, pp 39 39

40 References Harter, J.K. Schmidt, F.L. & Hayes, T.L. 2002, ‘Business- unit- level relationship between employee satisfaction, employee engagement, and business outcomes: A meta analysis‘, Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 87, no. 2, pp Kahn, W.A. 1990, ‘Psychological conditions of personal engagement and disengagement at work‘, Academy of Management Journal, vol. 33, no. 4, pp Luthans, F. & Peterson, S.J. 2002, ‘Employee engagement and manager self-efficacy: Implications for managerial effectiveness and development‘, Journal of Management Development, vol. 21, 5, pp May, D.R. Gilson, R.L. & Harter, L.M. 2004, ‘The psychological conditions of meaningfulness, safety and availability and the engagement of the human spirit at work’, Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, vol. 77, PP Macey, W.H. & Schneider, B ‘The meaning of employee engagement’ , Industrial and Organisational Psychology, vol, 1, pp 3-30. McDade, S. & McKenzie, A. 2002, ‘Knowledge workers in the engagement equation’, Strategic HR Review, vol. 1, 4, pp Meyer, J.P. & Allen, N.J. 1991, ‘A three component conceptualisation of organisational commitment’, Human Resource Management Review, vol. 1, pp 40 40

41 References Mowday, R.T. Steers, R.M. & Porter, L.W. 1979, ‘The measurement of organizational commitment, Journal of Vocational Behaviour, vol. 14, pp Mueller, C.W. Wallace, J.E. & Price, J.L. 1992, ‘Employee commitment: Resolving some issues‘, Work and Occupations, vol. 19, no. 3, pp Porter, L.W. Steers, R.M., Mowday, R.T. & Boulian, P.V. 1974, ‘Organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and turnover among psychiatric technicians’, Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 59, no. 5, pp Price, J.L. & Mueller, C.W. 1986, Handbook of organizational measurement, Pitman Publishing, INC, Massachusetts. Price, J.L. & Mueller, C.W. 1981, ‘A causal model of turnover for nurses‘, Academy of Management Journal, vol. 24, no. 3, pp Robinson, D., Perryman, S. & Hayday, S. 2004, ‘The drivers of employee engagement‘, Institute of Employment Studies, Report 405. Viljoen, R.C. 2008, ‘Sustainable organisational transformation through inclusivity’, DBL dissertation. Available online www:// /unrestricted/00thesis.pdf 41 41

42 Questions ? 42 42

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