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Unleash engagement in multicultural organisations: Inclusivity as the key to sustainable business transformation Presentation at 29 th International OD.

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Presentation on theme: "Unleash engagement in multicultural organisations: Inclusivity as the key to sustainable business transformation Presentation at 29 th International OD."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unleash engagement in multicultural organisations: Inclusivity as the key to sustainable business transformation Presentation at 29 th International OD Congress

2 Doctor in Business Leadership (SBL Unisa) International Organisational Development specialist and practitioner focusing on optimising individual, group and organisational behaviour Focus on creating Engagement in multi-cultural organisations through Inclusivity Consulted to and facilitated in various countries e.g. Califoria, Peru, Australia, Spain, Zambia, Mali, Tanzania, Namibia, Zambia, Ghana Associated with numerous academic institutions as subject matter expert e.g. da Vinci Institute, SBL – UNISA and Village of Leaders – Stellenbosch Managing Director of Mandala Consulting Rica Viljoen

3 Masters in Commerce (Industrial Psychology), Stellenbosch University PhD Candidate, Erasmus University of Rotterdam, Netherlands Lecturer in Strategic Human Resource Management & Psychometrics Industrial Psychologist (HPCSA) Business associate of various organisations in R&D consulting Partnered with Mandala Consulting to do statistical analysis for Benchmark of Engagement (BeQ) measurement instrument (from 2009) Francois De Kock

4 Unleash engagement in multicultural organisations: Inclusivity as the key to sustainable business transformation Introduction Theory on Engagement and Inclusivity Unleashing tacit potential in systems Benefits of Engagement Benchmark of Engagement (BeQ) Case study: Mine in Africa Validation of BeQ Next steps of Development of BeQ Conclusions Questions Layout of presentation

5 Unleash engagement in multicultural organisations: Inclusivity as the key to sustainable business transformation In today’s competitive, ever changing world, companies strive harder than ever to implement strategy in a sustainable manner and to stay recent in the mind of the global consumer. The people capacity in the system and the interaction between human entities lead to the “amount of energy” in a system to perform. This energy can lead to engaged individuals – a situation where the tacit potential of an individual manifests and is applied to organisational tasks to the benefit of the individual, the group and the organisation. Other forms of energy is “apathetic” or “disconnected” with obvious human losses of human potential. Engagement leads to organisational benefits such as customer centricity, productivity, safe behaviour, low turnover and low absenteeism. Leaders in organisations should understand the art of facilitating employee engagement. Introduction

6 Employee Engagement is defined (Corporate Leadership Council, 2004:3) as the “positive emotional connection to an employee’s work, thus affective, normative and continuance commitment” and "a heightened emotional connection that an employee feels for his or her organisation, that influences him or her to exert greater discretionary effort to his or her work". Theory on Engagement

7 Sustainability thorough Inclusivity - energy on all dimensions OD Interventions New world of work Nature of the world Why we changeEssence of Change New Sciences We change differently Consciousness On Diversity The Individual The Team The Organisation How individuals change How groups change The What Context: Industry South Africa Africa Global Leadership Doing Being Disconnect Apathy Engagement / Commitment Inclusivity Organisation Group Individual EQ Journey Dialoguing World Cafe Storytelling Appreciative Inquiry Organisational Leadership Trust Leadership Work attributes State Engagement Trait Engagement Behavioral Engagement How organisations change The way: How we change Mandala Consulting™ Inclusivity through Engagement – Viljoen (2008)

8 The individual The Team The Organisation Level of engagement Assumptions About We Assumptions About They Assumptions About Me and Society Context National Cultural Level of Engagement

9 Level of engagement Correlates directly to: + - ProductivityAbseetism RetentionTurnover Employee SatisfactionApathy Creativity and InnovationNumber of incidents Safe BehaviourNumber of Accidents Customer experienceMistakes Ability to deal with changeApathy Benefit of Engagement – Viljoen (2008)

10 The individual The Team The Organisation Assumptions About We Assumptions About They Assumptions About Me Self Regard Resilience, Efficacy Personal Responsibility Corporate Citizenship Support, Leadership, Work Attributes Valuing Diversity, Accountability Trust, Competitiveness, Adaptability to change, Inclusivity, Ethics Within the context of the country: Factors critical for engagement

11 The BeQ™-model reflects the interplay between assumptions and perceptions alive and well in organisations around constructs that contribute to the unleashing of individual voices, potential and gifts. As the organisational, the country climate and worldview also influence these perceptions, they are also explored. Specific focus on methodology –Align Qualitative and Quantitative data –World Cafe –Story Telling –Appreciative Inquiry –OD BeQ™ - Benchmark of Engagement Quotient

12 Case Study Understand the underlying mental models of the Case Organisation’s staff and those withing the departments Explore the relations between perceptions that influence organisational commitment and the unleashing of individual voices Understand the underlying assumptions as they pertain to the individual, the various departments and contractor groups, the mine (organisation) and the greater organisation Determine the level of engagement within the organisation, that will manifest in optimal productivity and safe behaviour. Understand the underlying mental models of the Case Organisation’s staff and those withing the departments Explore the relations between perceptions that influence organisational commitment and the unleashing of individual voices Understand the underlying assumptions as they pertain to the individual, the various departments and contractor groups, the mine (organisation) and the greater organisation Determine the level of engagement within the organisation, that will manifest in optimal productivity and safe behaviour. BeQ™ - Primary Objective

13 Case Study Results BeQ™ - Conducting of Quantitative Research

14 BeQ™ Model The individual The Team The Organisation Climate Assumptions About We Culture Assumptions About They World View Assumptions About Me Respect, Regard, Resilience, Responsibility Safety Orientation Production orientation Wellness capacity Trust, Inclusivity, Ethics Within the context of the culture/climate: Level of Voice BeQ™ Benchmark of Engagement Quotient Alignment, Support, Supervisor Capability Valuing Diversity, Accountability

15 Case Study

16 Case study

17 High Alignment Safety Focus Language Diversity Low Wellbeing Capability High Risk Taking Decreased Performance Pride Unwillingness to Engage Have voice Sense of Urgency Low Confidence Evident Enablers Outcome Compromisers Manifested Dynamic Inconsistent Perf management Supervisor ‘s Motivation and Leadership Low Acknowledgement Commitment Low Belonging Paralyzed Focus of BeQ Mpira mo ho Focus of BeQ The story of Case organisation

18 Predicting individual engagement at the case organisation I_ENGAGEMENT =.16*SUPERVISOR_CAPABILITY +.123*TRUST+.1055EXPAT_LOCAL Individual engagement could be predicted from perceptions of supervisor capability, trust and expat-local relationships. The drivers of engagement were analysed for every department; they were different for each environment.

19 Drivers of engagement in Case Organisation

20 Mind the gap!!!!

21 Analysis, conclusions and reports Once research is complete our research consultants undertake full data verification and oversee collation and input. Data analysis follows, as well as cross-referencing, interpreting and presenting of the findings and conclusions into a full report, including recommendations for alterations and improvements for the future. Our consultants can also be called upon to undertake presentations to key audiences if required. Translation to all that have partaken in the study. Joint action planning to determine corrective actions. Organisational design report to improve climate is presented.

22 Validation process What are the goals we have in mind with the measures? What is the broad research approach? What is the standard procedure we follow with data analysis? What are our preliminary results? What are the lessons we have learned? What are our next steps?

23 Statistical goals We want to trust the meaning of our test scores (i.e., validity in all its forms) Reliable measurement (internal consistency of α =.80, Nunnally, 1978) Simple structure in terms of dimensionality Measure must predict important outcomes Long enough for above, but short enough to be comfortable for client respondent

24 Broad research approach Internal properties? Core items Benchmarking BEQ v1 Internal properties? Benchmarking BEQ v2 Related to important outcomes? Model fit? BEQ vBase Equivalence Norm database BEQ language Versions

25 Lowest (+-.34) Highest (+-.79) Target.80 Reasons Short scales Negatively phrased Prelim results (v1): Reliability (α)

26 Prelim results (v1, I-factor): Factor structure is acceptable

27 Prelim results (v1 I-factor): Factors structure is acceptable

28 Concurrent validity: UWES Benchm

29 Preliminary results

30 Descriptive statistics: factors

31 Factor intercorrelations

32 Predictors of engagement

33

34 Drivers Org #1

35 Drivers Org #2

36 Next steps in development Analyse psychometric properties (v2) in pilot administration Administer v2 to client organisation Last refinements to produce Base version Write test manual and administration guide Assess relation of scores to outcome-measures Cross-validation of model Develop other language versions Assess construct equivalence Develop norm-database

37 Lessons we have learned Drivers of engagement are sample specific, but supervisor capability plays dominant role Marry quantitative and qualitative approaches Instruments are stable in African context Analyse psychometric properties as evidence of your quality of measurement

38 References Agarwala, T. 2003, ‘Innovative human resource practices and organisational commitment: An empirical investigation’, International Journal of Human Resource Management, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 175-197. Allen, N.J. & Meyer, J.P. 1990, ‘The measurement and antecedents of affective, continuance and normative commitment to the organisation’, Journal of Occupational Psychology, vol. 63, pp. 1-18. Angle, H.L. & Perry, J.L. 1986, ‘Dual commitment and labour- management relationship climates‘, Academy of Management Journal, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 31-50. Angle, H.L. & Perry, J.L. 1983, ‘Organisational commitment: Individual and organisational influences‘, Work and Occupations, vol. 10, no.2, pp. 123-146. Baruch, Y. & Winkelmann-Gleed, A. 2002, ‘Multiple commitments: A conceptual framework and empirical investigation on a Community Health Service Trust‘, British Journal of Management, vol. 13, pp. 337-357. Benson, J. 1998, ‘Dual commitment: Contract workers in Australian manufacturing enterprises’, Journal of Management Studies, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 355-375. Bishop, J.W. Dow Scott, K. & Burroughs, S.M. 2000, ‘Support, commitment, and employee outcomes in a team environment’, Journal of Management, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 1113-1132. Blau, P.M. 1964, Exchange and Power in Social Life, Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick, New York.

39 References Chang, K. & Chelladurai, P. 2003, ‘Comparison of Part-time workers and Full-time workers: Commitment and citizenship behaviours in Korean sport organisations’, Journal of Sport Management, vol. 17, pp. 394-416. Crabtree, S. 2005, ‘Engagement keeps the doctor away‘, Gallup Management Journal, January 13, pp. 1-4. Deery, S.J. & Iverson, R.D. 1998, ‘Antecedents and consequences of dual and unilateral commitment: A longitudinal study‘, The University of Melbourne, Department of Management working paper number 1, January 1998. Echols, M.E. 2005, ‘Engaging employees to impact performance‘ Chief Learning Officer, February, pp. 44-48. Eisenberger, R. Fasolo, P & Davis-LaMastro, V. 1990, ‘Perceived organisational support and employee diligence, commitment and innovation‘, Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 75, no. 1, pp. 51-59. Eisenberger, R. Huntington. R. Hutchinson, S. & Sowa, D. 1986, ‘Perceived organisational support‘, Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 71, no. 3, pp. 500-507. Gouldner, A.W. 1960, ‘The norm of reciprocity. American Sociological Review, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 165-178. Greenfield. W.M. 2004, ‘Decision making and employee engagement‘, Employee Relations Today‘, Summer, pp. 13-24. Gubman, E. 2004, ‘From engagement to passion for work: The search for the missing person‘, Human Research Planning, pp. 42-46.

40 References Harter, J.K. Schmidt, F.L. & Hayes, T.L. 2002, ‘Business- unit- level relationship between employee satisfaction, employee engagement, and business outcomes: A meta analysis‘, Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 87, no. 2, pp. 268-279. Kahn, W.A. 1990, ‘Psychological conditions of personal engagement and disengagement at work‘, Academy of Management Journal, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 692- 724. Luthans, F. & Peterson, S.J. 2002, ‘Employee engagement and manager self- efficacy: Implications for managerial effectiveness and development‘, Journal of Management Development, vol. 21, 5, pp. 376-387. May, D.R. Gilson, R.L. & Harter, L.M. 2004, ‘The psychological conditions of meaningfulness, safety and availability and the engagement of the human spirit at work’, Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, vol. 77, PP. 11-37. Macey, W.H. & Schneider, B. 2008. ‘The meaning of employee engagement’, Industrial and Organisational Psychology, vol, 1, pp 3-30. McDade, S. & McKenzie, A. 2002, ‘Knowledge workers in the engagement equation’, Strategic HR Review, vol. 1, 4, pp. 34-37. Meyer, J.P. & Allen, N.J. 1991, ‘A three component conceptualisation of organisational commitment’, Human Resource Management Review, vol. 1, pp. 61-89.

41 References Mowday, R.T. Steers, R.M. & Porter, L.W. 1979, ‘The measurement of organizational commitment, Journal of Vocational Behaviour, vol. 14, pp. 224-247. Mueller, C.W. Wallace, J.E. & Price, J.L. 1992, ‘Employee commitment: Resolving some issues‘, Work and Occupations, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 211-236. Porter, L.W. Steers, R.M., Mowday, R.T. & Boulian, P.V. 1974, ‘Organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and turnover among psychiatric technicians’, Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 59, no. 5, pp. 603-609. Price, J.L. & Mueller, C.W. 1986, Handbook of organizational measurement, Pitman Publishing, INC, Massachusetts. Price, J.L. & Mueller, C.W. 1981, ‘A causal model of turnover for nurses‘, Academy of Management Journal, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 543-565. Robinson, D., Perryman, S. & Hayday, S. 2004, ‘The drivers of employee engagement‘, Institute of Employment Studies, Report 405. Viljoen, R.C. 2008, ‘Sustainable organisational transformation through inclusivity’, DBL dissertation. Available online www:// etd.unisa.ac.za/ETD- db/theses/available/etd-02192009-090759/unrestricted/00thesis.pdf

42 Questions ?


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