2 Employees operate under growing conditions of uncertainty and stress …as such it is critical that leaders step in to ‘model the way’
3 Values are a critical aspect of leaders’ ability to model the way
4 As a first step, leaders need to determine what is important to them and what their own values are…the path that they wish to takeA critical aspect of this is discovering what they care about, finding their voice
5 Knowing your “inner territory,” what you value, makes you a stronger leader because it allows you to act with integrity as your values guide your actionsWhen a leader’s actions are guided by values s/he is able to achieve authenticity as a leader
6 When leaders have clarity on their personal values they experience and demonstrate a greater sense of commitment to value-aligned action and those with whom they work
7 An equally important step is to create a sense of shared values among employees
8 Values need to be forged, not forced Effective leaders do not impose their values on employees, they find a way to integrate their personal values with those of their employees to forge a common value system
9 Leaders need to model the shared values…. Leaders illustrate what the values ‘look like’ in the organizational context
10 Leaders model values by: How they spend their timeThe language they useThe types of questions they askThe types of feedback they seek
12 Storytelling is one of the most effective tools at a leaders disposal… Why?
13 Storytelling is one of the most effective tools at a leaders disposal… Why? Stories are easy to rememberPeople relate to storiesStories demonstrate values in a way that is meaningfulPeople learn more effectively through stories
14 What questions should you be asking if you want people to focus on…… Personal ResponsibilityCustomer /Client SatisfactionTrustGrowthCommunicationContinuous ImprovementQualityInnovationIntegrityTeamworkCollaboration
16 Authentic Leadership Description Authentic Leadership – focuses on whether leadership is genuineInterest in Authentic LeadershipIncreasing in recent times due to social upheavalsPeople longing for trustworthy leadersIdentified earlier in transformational leadership research but not studied separatelyNeeded evidence-based research of construct
17 Definition of Authentic Leadership “A pattern that draws upon and promotes both positive psychological capacities and a positive ethical climate, to foster greater self-awareness, an internalized moral perspective, balanced processing of information, and relational transparency on the part of leaders working with followers, fostering positive self-development.”Walumbwa, Avolio, Gardner, Wernsing & Peterson, 2008
18 Basic Model of Authentic Leadership FOUR COMPONENTS:Self-awarenessReflecting on one’s core values, identity, emotions, motivesBeing aware of and trusting your own feelingsInternalized moral perspectiveSelf-regulatory process using internal moral standards to guide behaviorBalanced processingAbility to analyze informational objectively and explore other people’s opinions before making a decision- Relational transparencyBeing open and honest in presenting one’s true self to others
19 Practical Approaches to Authentic Leadership Bill George (2003, 2007)Leader characteristic modelLeaders have genuine desire to serve othersFive characteristics of Authentic LeadersUnderstand their purposeStrong valuesTrusting relationshipsSelf-disciplineAct from the heart (mission)
20 Practical Approaches to Authentic Leadership Robert Terry (1993)Action-centered modelLeaders should strive to do what is rightTwo core leadership questions:What is really, really going on?What are we going to do about it?Developed Authentic Action Wheel to help leaders frame problemsLocate the problem on the diagnostic wheelStrategically select an appropriate response to the problem
21 StrengthsFulfills society’s expressed need for trustworthy leadership. Fills a void in an uncertain world.Provides broad guidelines for those who want to become authentic leaders. Both practical and theoretical approaches provide a map.Like transformational and servant leadership, AL has an explicit moral dimension.Unlike traits that only some people exhibit, everyone can learn to be more authentic.Can be measured using an established instrument (ALQ).
22 CriticismsThe theory is still in the formative stages, so some concepts in the practical approaches are not fully developed or substantiated.The moral component of AL is not fully explained. It’s unclear how higher values such as justice inform authentic leadership.The rationale for including positive psychological capacities as a part of AL has not been clearly explained by researchers.The link between authentic leadership and positive organizational outcomes is unclear. It is also not clear whether AL is sufficient to achieve organizational goals.
23 ApplicationPeople have the capacity to become authentic leaders. It is a lifelong learning process.Human Resource departments may be able to foster authentic leadership behaviors in employees who move into leadership positions.Leaders are always trying to do the “right” thing, to be honest with themselves and others, and to work for the common good.Leaders are shaped by critical life events that lead to growth and greater authenticity.
24 Reflection QuestionWhat similarities do you see between Kouzes’ and Posner’s Exemplary Leadership Model and Authentic Leadership?What differences do you see between these two models?If you had to choose one as the basis for your leadership development, which would you choose? Why?