Consciousness: ◦ our awareness of ourselves and our environment. Cognitive neuroscience: ◦ studies the connections between brain activity & mental processes
Focusing conscious awareness on a particular stimulus What happens to our attention when on the phone?
Cell phone use a nd car accidents ◦ Slower to detect & respond to traffic signals (28%) We can only process a tiny sliver of the immense amount of visual stimuli constantly before us.
Who Dunnit? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ubNF9QNEQLA How many changes can you detect? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vJG698U2Mvo
Inattentional blindness Inattentional blindness ◦ failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere
Change blindness Change blindness ◦ A failure to notice a difference in what is there now vs. what was there a moment ago. Simon’s Lab http://www.youtube.com/w atch?v=VkrrVozZR2c http://www.youtube.c om/watch?v=d0W60B X_6wA BG: Pay Attention 6 min
#s1, 2, 10,18 – use number below where you checked time.
◦ Awake Alpha waves Alpha waves Awake but relaxed ◦ Stage 1 Transition 1-7 minutes Light sleep Hypnagogic sensations Easy to awaken Aroused from stage 1 report they were awake
Stage 2 ◦ Onset of true sleep ◦ Sleep spindles High frequency bursts of brain activity ◦ Muscle tension, heart rate, respiration, temp start to decline ◦ Some delta waves Stage 3 ◦ Continue to show more delta waves Stage 4 Stage 4 Delta waves Delta waves ◦ REM sleep REM sleep
Stage 4 ◦ Delta sleep ◦ High amplitude very low frequency (delta) ◦ Deepest stage of sleep; most difficult to wake ◦ Sleepwalking & talking present ◦ Night terrors in children ◦ If awaken, don’t remember
Genetic Forces ◦ age related differences in avg. sleeping time depend upon differences among individuals Cultural Forces ◦ Those in more modernized cultures sleep less
Circadian rhythm Circadian rhythm ◦ Internal biological clock ◦ Body rhythms change temperature, alertness occurs on a 24 hr cycle age & experience can alter your circadian rhythm
Biological Rhythms and Sleep Circadian Rhythm When light hits the retina, it signals the brain to stop production of Light Stops Melatonin = awake
1. Sleep protects -evolutionary? Animals sleep patterns fit its place in nature elephant vs bats most need to graze/least ability to hide 2. Sleep helps us recover - repair brain tissue 3. Sleep helps memory & creative thinking proof? 4. Sleep releases growth hormones Stage 4 – deep sleep As we age we spend less time in deep sleep (stage 4)
Objective 4: How does sleep loss affect us & what are the major sleep disorders?
Manifest Content ◦ Storyline Daily life works way into dreams External stimuli works way into dreams Latent Content “Sometimes a cigar is just a cigar.”
Activation Synthesis Theory To satisfy our own wishes ◦ Freud; psychic safety valve; ◦ Manifest Content / Latent Content To file away memories ◦ Information processing ◦ Fix the day’s experiences in our minds To develop/preserve neural pathways ◦ Babies = Lots of REM To make sense of neural static ◦ Limbic system active during REM (i.e. amygdala) while frontal lobe less active To reflect cognitive development ◦ Brain maturation