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 Consciousness: ◦ our awareness of ourselves and our environment.  Cognitive neuroscience: ◦ studies the connections between brain activity & mental.

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Presentation on theme: " Consciousness: ◦ our awareness of ourselves and our environment.  Cognitive neuroscience: ◦ studies the connections between brain activity & mental."— Presentation transcript:

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2  Consciousness: ◦ our awareness of ourselves and our environment.  Cognitive neuroscience: ◦ studies the connections between brain activity & mental processes

3  Focusing conscious awareness on a particular stimulus  What happens to our attention when on the phone?

4  Cell phone use a nd car accidents ◦ Slower to detect & respond to traffic signals (28%) We can only process a tiny sliver of the immense amount of visual stimuli constantly before us.

5 Who Dunnit? How many changes can you detect?

6  Inattentional blindness Inattentional blindness ◦ failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere

7  Change blindness Change blindness ◦ A failure to notice a difference in what is there now vs. what was there a moment ago. Simon’s Lab atch?v=VkrrVozZR2c om/watch?v=d0W60B X_6wA BG: Pay Attention 6 min

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9  #s1, 2, 10,18 – use number below where you checked time.

10 ◦ Awake  Alpha waves Alpha waves  Awake but relaxed ◦ Stage 1  Transition  1-7 minutes  Light sleep  Hypnagogic sensations  Easy to awaken  Aroused from stage 1 report they were awake

11 Stage 2 ◦ Onset of true sleep ◦ Sleep spindles  High frequency bursts of brain activity ◦ Muscle tension, heart rate, respiration, temp start to decline ◦ Some delta waves Stage 3 ◦ Continue to show more delta waves  Stage 4 Stage 4  Delta waves Delta waves ◦ REM sleep REM sleep

12 Stage 4 ◦ Delta sleep ◦ High amplitude very low frequency (delta) ◦ Deepest stage of sleep; most difficult to wake ◦ Sleepwalking & talking present ◦ Night terrors in children ◦ If awaken, don’t remember

13 Biological Rhythms and Sleep Sleep Stages

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19  Dreams = 20% of sleep time  Eyes move rapidly back & forth  Paradoxical sleep ◦ Brain active body not  Heart rate & blood pressure increase  Lose muscle tension & movement

20 Biological Rhythms and Sleep Typical Nights Sleep

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25  Genetic Forces ◦ age related differences in avg. sleeping time depend upon differences among individuals  Cultural Forces ◦ Those in more modernized cultures sleep less

26  Circadian rhythm Circadian rhythm ◦ Internal biological clock ◦ Body rhythms change  temperature, alertness  occurs on a 24 hr cycle  age & experience can alter your circadian rhythm

27 Biological Rhythms and Sleep Circadian Rhythm When light hits the retina, it signals the brain to stop production of Light Stops Melatonin = awake

28 1. Sleep protects -evolutionary?  Animals sleep patterns fit its place in nature  elephant vs bats  most need to graze/least ability to hide 2. Sleep helps us recover - repair brain tissue 3. Sleep helps memory & creative thinking  proof? 4. Sleep releases growth hormones  Stage 4 – deep sleep  As we age we spend less time in deep sleep (stage 4)

29 Objective 4: How does sleep loss affect us & what are the major sleep disorders?

30 Why Do We Sleep? The Effects of Sleep Loss

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34 ◦ Weight Gain (ghrelin) Weight Gain (ghrelin) ◦ Stress (cortisol) Stress (cortisol) ◦ Insomnia Insomnia ◦ Narcolepsy Narcolepsy ◦ Sleep apnea Sleep apnea ◦ Night terrors Night terrors ◦

35 Effects of Sleep DebtSleep Disorders  Weight Gain ◦ Gherlin  Stress ◦ Cortisol  Irritable  Less Creative  Poor Judgement  Insomnia  Sleep Apnea ◦ Stop breathing  Night Terrors ◦ Stage 4  Narcolepsy I 1 in 20 1 in in 10

36 Gzc3x9WJU Gzc3x9WJU

37  Manifest Content ◦ Storyline  Daily life works way into dreams  External stimuli works way into dreams Latent Content “Sometimes a cigar is just a cigar.”

38 Activation Synthesis Theory  To satisfy our own wishes ◦ Freud; psychic safety valve; ◦ Manifest Content / Latent Content  To file away memories ◦ Information processing ◦ Fix the day’s experiences in our minds  To develop/preserve neural pathways ◦ Babies = Lots of REM  To make sense of neural static ◦ Limbic system active during REM (i.e. amygdala) while frontal lobe less active  To reflect cognitive development ◦ Brain maturation


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