Presentation on theme: "Sleep The Rhythm of Sleep Sleep Disorders. Sleep & Dreams Sleep – the irresistible tempter to whom we inevitably succumb. Mysteries about sleep and."— Presentation transcript:
Sleep & Dreams Sleep – the irresistible tempter to whom we inevitably succumb. Mysteries about sleep and dreams have just started unraveling in sleep laboratories around the world.
Sleep Sleep is a state we do not know we are in until we leave it. It is a state of consciousness in which we are less (but continuously) aware of ourselves and our environment than we are in our normal awake state.
90-minute cycles: We go through various stages of sleep. About every 90 minutes, we pass through a cycle of five distinct sleep stages. Sleep Stages Hank Morgan/ Rainbow
During early, light sleep (stages 1-2) the brain enters a high- amplitude, slow, regular wave form called theta waves. A person who is daydreaming also shows theta activity. Sleep Stages 1-2 Theta Waves Stage 1 is brief, lasting only a few minutes. During which time you may experience fantastic images or hallucinations Stage 2 is approximately 20 minutes. It is characterized by bursts of rapid brain activity
During deepest sleep (stages 3-4), brain activity slows down. There are large-amplitude, slow delta waves. Sleep Stages 3-4 Stage 3 lasts approximately 30 minutes. It is a transitional stage into the deeper sleep of stage 4 Stage 4 also lasts approximately 30 minutes. A stage of deep sleep in which episodes of sleep walking and bed wetting are most likely to occur. In both stages of sleep you are hard to awaken, but your brain selectively attends to some stimuli such as your name or a baby crying.
Stage 5: REM Sleep After reaching the deepest sleep stage 4, the sleep cycle starts moving backward through stages 3 and 2 towards stage 1. Although still asleep, the brain engages in low- amplitude, fast and regular beta waves much like awake-aroused state. Stage 5 last for about ten minutes. During which time, a person exhibits Rapid Eye Movements (REM) and reports vivid dreams. In addition to brain wave increases similar to Stage 1, people exhibit rapid breathing and increased heart rate. Your motor cortex is active, but your brainstem blocks messages to your body leaving you completely relaxed. You are not easily awakened in this stage. This stage is called paradoxical stage…because your muscles are relaxed…yet brain activity, heart rate, b.p. increase => Paradox
90-Minute Cycles During Sleep With each 90-minute cycle, stage 4 sleep decreases and the duration of REM sleep increases.
Why do we sleep? We spend one-third of our lives sleeping. If an individual remains awake for several days, they deteriorate in terms of immune function, concentration, and accidents. Jose Luis Pelaez, Inc./ Corbis
Accidents Frequency of accidents increase with loss of sleep
Sleep Theories 1.Sleep Protects: Sleeping in the darkness when predators loomed about kept our ancestors out of harm’s way. 2.Sleep Recuperates: Sleep helps restore and repair brain tissue. 3.Sleep Helps Remembering: Sleep restores and rebuilds our fading memories. 4.Sleep and Growth: During sleep, the pituitary gland releases growth hormone. Older people release less of this hormone and sleep less.
1.Somnambulism: Sleepwalking. 2. Nightmares: Frightening dreams that wake a sleeper from REM. 3. Night terrors: Sudden arousal from sleep with intense fear accompanied by physiological reactions (e.g., rapid heart rate, perspiration) that occur during stage 4. Sleep Disorders
4.Narcolepsy: Overpowering urge to fall asleep that may occur while talking or standing up. Can include excessive daytime sleepiness and/or cataplexy 5.Sleep apnea: Failure to breathe when asleep causing frequent arousal and interupted sleep patterns 6. Insomnia: Difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep even when tired Sleep Disorders